All posts by David (Dave) Food

IIoT: Tomorrow Thinking for Supply Chain

The Internet of Things (IoT) is designed to make our data more useable. What opportunities and concerns does it present within logistics, where it is referred to as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) ?

The trends of Supply Chain technology are shaping the future of logistics management.

The common thread is the push toward hyper-interoperability, where technology, people and process collaborate to create true visibility, accurate orders, and happy customers.

It is impossible to ignore the pressure on retailers and distribution centre (DC) to re-engineer operations to meet the Omni-channel fulfilment mandate. The evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT), designed to make data more usable, is quickly becoming a reality across global supply chains.

The Industrial lnternet of Things

Definitions of IoT spin around connecting sensors, programmable logic controllers, and RFID data with the internet so that other systems or analytical software can respond to or make sense of the data. An RF gun, voice recognition, and RFID in the warehouse all provide IoT–style sensor data; it is called the “Industrial Internet of Things” (IIoT) to differentiate from consumer applications.

The order management system needs to orchestrate the fulfilment by interacting with inventory allocation, warehouse, management, transportation, and workforce scheduling systems using user-configurable business rule. The overall goal for Omni-channel is to satisfy more consumer demand with acceptable profit margins.

Logistics management in the warehouse

Many opportunities for improvement through smart forklifts, diagnostics of the equipment, speed controls, anti-slip technology, collision detection, fork speed optimisation, promoting new process flows, autonomously trip to a shipping dock for unloading, etc., are some of the applications and possibility a multi-channel system provides for the improvement of the overall process.

Transportation management

Tracking trucks based on RFID, GPS, RF scans, temperature, sensors embedded in the freight -all of these fit the definition of IIoT, the benefits being: improving network-based routing, the use of a smart phone for routing to determine congestion and better alternative routes.

Security

Security is the number one concern around IIoT, working hand in hand with public cloud solutions. It helps to detect Cyber attackers’ techniques quickly and avoid being tricked by them.

Inventory Management

This is a  hidden key to success. A major application of Omni-channel is a customer ordering a product and the retailer fulfilling the order from within their store network versus a distribution center. This introduces the requirement of advanced information systems to provide awareness of inventory throughout the store network. The omnichannel system would identify the stores with the right inventory and determine the most cost-effective location to fulfill from to provide the promised service level. Retailers challenge is the implementation of new order of management systems, to build a single view of inventory availability – foundation of Omni-channel fulfillment – and to recognize the new consumer’s expectation, the goal being to optimize inventory deployment so that the required inventory is where it should be to satisfy consumer demand at a lower cost.

Ordering

The first step is for the retailer to understand the Omni-channel strategies and how the customer’ buying patterns have changed (ordering an item online, by a mobile, from a store and picking it later, the item being shipped to the customer’s home, the customer calling to a call centre, etc. A fully-functional technology Omni-channel fulfilment operation has to be integrated according to the various selling systems.

Shipment and Delivery

Omni-channel technology, as the one IIoT provides,  plays a vital role in this environment by enabling store employees to efficiently navigate the store floor to find the ordered inventory. Once the item is retrieved, store employees utilize packaging stations to prepare order for shipment and utilize small parcel carriers to pick-up and deliver the orders. Using the same trailers scheduled for normal store delivery, however, separating these pre-ordered items on the trailer is the critical piece in this strategy. Loading these items at the front of the trailer, labeling them with special tags utilizing barcode-scanning technology, and using colored totes are a few ways to flag the inventory.

Returns processing

Returns processing is still an improvement opportunity for many Omni-channel retailers. The goal is to allow a consumer to return purchases to either stores or a central returns facility regardless of where the sale originates.

The top three priorities identified are inventory planning, fulfillment capabilities and returns processing. Retailers have to keep working on the enterprise-wide visibility of available inventory. Inventory must be deployed differently in an Omni-channel world; many retailers are beginning to address that challenge, developing flexible fulfillment capabilities that leverage stores, DCs, and vendors to fulfill consumer demand. However, store fulfillment processes are not as efficient as they are in a DC where conditions are more controlled. Omni- channel is having a profound impact on supply chain organizations-especially logistics across all levels of maturity, being better equipped to embrace Omni-channel from a people, process and technology perspective.

So what new approaches are you applying to your Supply Chain? Let us know in the comments below.

This article was first published on LinkedIn

Order Up! 5 Supply Management Capabilities You Can’t Leave Off The Menu

When it comes to supply management, are you managing your customer orders effectively? Dave Food discusses Order Management and five more capabilities you just can’t go without.

Last week, Dave Food talked us through five of the key supply chain capabilities that everyone needs. This week, he’s come up with five more!

From order management to shop floor execution and supply chain visibility, these are the things procurement and supply chain professionals should be on top of.

1. Order Management (OM)

Knowledge and skill necessary to manage the receipt and scheduling of customer orders. An integrated OM system may encompass these modules:

1) Product information (descriptions, attributes, locations, quantities)

2) Inventory available to promise (ATP) and sourcing

3) Vendors, purchasing, and receiving

4) Marketing (catalogues, promotions, pricing)

5) Customers and prospects

6) Order entry and customer service (including returns and refunds)

7) Financial processing (credit cards, billing, payment on account)

8) Order processing (selection, printing, picking, packing, shipping)

2. Shop Floor Execution

This is the area in a manufacturing facility where assembly or production is carried out, either by an automated system or by workers or a combination of both. The shop floor capability may include equipment, inventory and storage areas. You can create customer orders and shop orders for each product manually or import shop orders from an ERP system. When this shop order authorisation is created or received, it contains a specified quantity of the product to be built on the Shop Floor.

Once you define your production work floor processes and rules, the platform to optimise operations can be implemented. Real-time status updates can be provided to your organisation and your customers as they need them. A SF provides an on-demand view of bill of materials, routing details, work instructions, material availability, part and product images and programs, to develop optimal SF processes. These should match your business needs, increase view production work orders at any stage of manufacturing, and rework instructions are sent directly to the factory floor to coordinate processes efficiently and improve customer service.

3. Supply Chain Continuity Planning

This is the process that seeks to optimise Supply Chain strategy, processes, human resources, technology and knowledge. Supply Chain Continuity Planning controls, monitors and evaluates Supply Chain risk, which serves to safeguard against new uncertainties that may emerge affecting profitability. The continuity of the company is vital for the long-term success of the business, in today’s world; all aspects of the functioning of an organisation are vulnerable to disruptions and risks. Supply Chain Continuity Planning controls, monitors and evaluates Supply Chain risk.

4. Supply Chain Visibility

Supply chain visibility (SCV) is defined as the ability of parts, components, or products in transit to be tracked from the manufacturer to their final destination. SCV enables you to perform “what-if” scenarios. Visualising these different scenarios can help you predict issues and problems that may arise, and then plan for them and their solutions.

Visibility allows people in the supply chain to see problems before they occur and take necessary steps to avoid the expense in real time. Visibility also provides insight to make more intelligent decisions early in the order cycle (just in time inventory) and perform more intelligent audits in the distribution centres on inbound shipments. Finally, visibility can also be a major driver increasing throughput in the existing distribution network and thus delaying the need for costly new DCs

5. Supply Chain Network

The collection of physical locations, transportation vehicles and supporting systems through which the products and services firm markets are managed and ultimately delivered; it can be manufacturing plants, storage warehouses, carrier, docks, major distribution centres, ports, intermodal terminals whether owned by a company, suppliers, a transport carrier, a third-party logistics provider, a retail store or an end customer.

Emerging technologies and standards such as the RFID and the GS1 are now making it possible to automate these SCNw in a real time manner making them more efficient. A SCN can be strategically designed in such a way as to reduce the cost of the supply chain. Designing a SCN involves creating a network that incorporates all the facilities, means of production, products, and transportation assets owned by the organisation or those not owned by the organisation but which immediately support the supply chain operations and product flow.

There is no definitive way to design a SCN as the network footprint, the capability and capacity, and product flow—all intertwine and are interdependent. Following on from this, there is also no single optimal SCNw design, in designing the network there is an apparent trade-off between responsiveness, risk tolerance and efficiency.

Dave Food is a supply chain innovator, a passionate educator, a futurist, a trend-watcher, an insightful consultant and a marketing strategist. This article was originally published on LinkedIn.

5 Core Supply Chain Capabilities Everyone Needs

What are the supply chain capabilities that everyone needs? Dave Food gets to the core of the issue…

What are some of the key capabilities for supply chain professionals?  When it comes to acing decision-making, cost effectiveness, forecasting, and productivity you can’t go wrong if you’ve nailed these five things.

1. Capacity Planning

CP is essential to determine the optimum utilisation of resources, and plays an important role in the decision-making process. It is a technique used to identify and measure the overall capacity of production. CP is utilised for capital intensive resource like plant, machinery and labour. Capacity planning also helps meet the future requirements of the organisation; it ensures that operating costs are maintained at the minimum-possible level without affecting the quality, and ensures the organisation remains competitive and can achieve its long-term growth plan.

2. Inventory Management & Optimisation

IMO is a top investment priority for manufacturers. It is driven by a set of values which are typically service level and inventory investment. IO is widely known as a way to free-up working capital or cost-effectively increase service levels. IO can:

  • identify all the stages of inventory
  • point out exactly which stock is excess inventory and where it is stored in the supply chain
  • understand which warehouse space can be freed up (and which shouldn’t be)
  • create a series of “what-if” scenarios based on the organisation’s improvement ideas and alternative configurations.

An IO solution should offer opportunities for supply chain professionals to understand the causes of inventory, accept or reject recommendations, and build trust in fact-based decision-making.

3. Demand Management

Demand Management is a planning methodology used to forecast, plan for and manage the demand for products and services. DM has a defined set of processes, capabilities and recommended behaviours for companies that produce all manner of goods and services. DM outcomes are a reflection of policies and programs to influence demand as well as competition and options available to users and consumers.

4. Master Production Scheduling

Scheduling is the process of arranging, controlling and optimising work and workloads in a production process or manufacturing process. Scheduling is used to allocate plant and machinery resources, plan human resources, plan production processes and purchase materials. It is an important tool for manufacturing and engineering, where it can have a major impact on the productivity of a process. In manufacturing, the purpose of scheduling is to minimise the production time and costs by telling a production facility when to make, with which staff, and on which equipment. Production scheduling aims to maximise the efficiency of the operation and reduce costs.

5. Materials Replenishment Planning

Most MRP systems are software-based, but it is possible to conduct MRP by hand as well. In almost all supply chains, materials need to be stored or buffered. This competency involves different steps, considering aspects of the planning environment/conditions about the product and the supplier. The importance of the companies’ goals/motives for materials supply must also be assessed.

MRP uses global demand plans to create a pull-driven replenishment process; this prevents ordering from the supplier when there is excess stock elsewhere in the supply chain.

Dave Food is a supply chain innovator, a passionate educator, a futurist, a trend-watcher, an insightful consultant and a marketing strategist. This article was originally published on LinkedIn.