All posts by Procurious HQ

Amazon’s Big Idea: drone deliveries direct to you. What next?!

Delivery to your door? That’s all a bit old-fashioned for Amazon it seems, as their plans for delivering customer orders using drones takes shape.

Amazon plans on sending drones directly to you

The common thought was that Amazon had intended to use their drones to deliver packages straight to the customer’s door, but details of a patent lodged in the USA has opened up a whole new range of possibilities.

From warehouse to hand

The patent, lodged in September 2014 and recently accepted, allowing details to be published, proposes to deliver packages straight to the customer, tracking their location using data from their smartphones.

The delivery option falls under the previously announced ‘Prime Air’, something that Amazon has been developing for a while now. However, it goes much further than most people expected. Using the Amazon app, the customer would select the ‘Bring it to me’ option, and then wait for their package to arrive from the closest dispatch location.

The patent also reveals plans for the drones to be able to communicate with each other, exchanging information on the weather and traffic conditions in the area. The drones will be designed in a variety of shapes and sizes in order to manage packages of different weights and shapes.

And if you’re worried about the drones crash-landing in your cappuccino while waiting outside your favourite café for that must-read book, fear not. The drones will be outfitted flight sensors, radar, sonar, cameras and infrared sensors to ensure safe landing zones are found and to constantly monitor the drone’s path to ensure it avoided collisions with human or animals.

Regulatory Disputes

However, the patent’s acceptance does not mean that US authorities will approve the plans. For a while now, Amazon has been trying to convince the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) to approve widespread use of drones, as well as allowing them to do further testing and development in the field.

Drones are currently limited to a height of 122m (400ft) and must stay in the pilot’s line of sight. Such have been Amazon’s issues with FAA regulations, that it has conducted much of its testing in Canada. The FAA has also been blamed for the US losing out in drone development, most notably to the UK, where a research centre is being built.

It’s not only the FAA that Amazon needs to convince either. A British Airline Pilots Association survey highlighted that just over half of adults think that drones pilots should have formal training, and that prison sentences should be imposed for endangering aircraft.

New Technology

While Amazon’s patent raises a number of questions about safety and privacy, it’s clearly a major development opportunity for the supply chain and logistics industries. Direct deliveries to an exact location could prove to be a considerable time and money saver, particularly for people in remote locations.

We’d be interested to hear your thoughts on this development. Is it going a step too far? Do you really want to have drones delivering packages to people wherever they are? Is the convenience worth the potential disruption?

Technological advancements were a hot topic at the Big Ideas Summit, powered by Procurious, a couple of weeks ago. From driverless trucks on mine sites, to technological disruptors in the supply chain, we’ve heard some great ideas. But we want to hear your Big Ideas too – find out how to share them here.

To access all the great content and discussions from the event, join Procurious for free today and join the Big Ideas Summit Group.

Meanwhile, here are some of the big headlines making the news in the procurement and supply chain space this week.

Apple wants to be entirely carbon neutral… one day

  • Apple wants to create enough renewable energy to power its entire global business, including its supply chain. Chief executive Tim Cook claimed it would take Apple “years” to realise the goal but said it had to happen.

  • “Apple’s goal is to achieve a net-zero impact on the world’s supply of sustainable virgin fibre and power all its operations worldwide on 100 percent renewable energy,” it said in a statement.

  • The firm already generates enough renewable energy to power 87 percent of energy use in its stores, offices and data centres, but that figure doesn’t include the supply chain. Apple said its supply chain uses 60 times as much power as its own operations.

  • Apple has previously been criticised for the environmental impact of its supply chain, most of which is based in China; regulators in China were said to be investigating two Apple suppliers for toxic dumping in 2013, amid other accusations of dumping by industrial partners.

Read more at Wired UK

Wal-Mart builds Supply Chain to meet e-commerce demands

  • Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is one of a growing number of big-box retailers building out their supply chains with distribution centers designed to meet the demands of online shopping. The company expects to open four such giant facilities this quarter, as it aims to triple online sales by 2018, to $35 billion from $12 billion last year.
  • Building fulfillment centers designed to cater to e-commerce, which demands the ability to handle a large number of small orders, can help retailers conduct more profitable online sales, said Brian Kilcourse, managing partner at RSR Research LLC, a retail technology consulting firm.
  • Each of Wal-Mart’s new facilities will be more than 1 million square feet and hold at least 500,000 items—much larger than its traditional distribution centers for stores, which hold 30,000 to 50,000 items. Wal-Mart opened an e-commerce center in Texas last year, and like that one, the new buildings will use both human labor and automation, such as computer-controlled chutes, to move items.
  • The goal of Wal-Mart’s new centers is to provide a single place stocked with a wide variety of products to get shipments collected and sent faster, a Wal-Mart spokesman said. Ultimately, analytics behind the shopping software will determine, on the fly, the most efficient way to fulfill the order, the spokesman said.

Read more at The Wall Street Journal

Jaguar Land Rover honours supply chain firms

  • Vehicle manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover has recognised its top ten direct suppliers at its inaugural Supplier Excellence Awards.
  • Companies from Corby to Cairo were presented with trophies by actress Joanna Lumley, at a ceremony held in the West Midlands, close to the heart of the company’s UK operations.
  • Ian Harnett, Jaguar Land Rover Director of Human Resources and Purchasing, said the awards had been instigated to recognise the role supply chain firms played in helping the company achieve its goals.
  • A total of 10 trophies were presented for performance in 2014:  two gold, four silver and four bronze.  The awards went to individual plants or facilities, rewarding on-time delivery, continuous quality, accreditation to international and Jaguar Land Rover standards and flexibility to meet the company’s developing needs.

Read more at TheBusinessDesk

New partnership to transform healthcare procurement in Asia-Pacific

  • UK and Australia-based company Healthcare Procurement Partners (HPP) has expanded its Asia-Pacific operations with a contract to deliver cost-savings and process improvements for the largest corporate healthcare provider in Asia-Pacific, Fullerton Healthcare Group.
  • Following an initial program of reducing non-payroll spend for Fullerton Healthcare’s Australian subsidiaries, Brisbane-based HPP will now pursue similar procurement projects in Singapore and Indonesia.
  • While the terms of the Project Fusion contract between HPP and Fullerton Healthcare Group remain commercial-in-confidence,  HPP’s local on-site presence in these key Fullerton Healthcare markets is expected to deliver significant repeatable annual savings by mid-2015.
  • HPP’s Managing Director, Daniel Williams said: “This promotes the transparent exchange of knowledge about how and where to unlock savings and improve cost-efficiencies, locally and more widely,”

Read more at NewsMaker

$349 Apple Watch components cost only $83.70

  • A “teardown” of the product by IHS Technology found the components cost $83.70, compared with the retail price of $349, giving it the lowest hardware costs relative to consumer price of any Apple phone researched by IHS.
  • IHS said estimated component cost to retail price ratios for other Apple products it had reviewed ranged from 29 per cent to 38 per cent.
  • The company said its analysis included manufacturing costs of $2.50 but did not include costs such as logistics, capital expenses, research and development, software and licensing.
  • Kevin Keller, senior principal analyst for materials and cost benchmarking services at IHS, said: “It’s fairly typical for a first-generation product rollout to have a higher retail price versus hardware cost.

Read more at Supply Management

Big Ideas: What are procurement’s blind spots?

What are procurement's blind spots?

One of the most incendiary sessions at the Big Ideas Summit saw us gazing into our crystal ball with a view to identifying procurement’s blind spots.

There are known knowns… There are known unknowns. But there are also unknown unknowns.” – Donald Rumsfeld.

This brilliant distillation of what was quite the complex matter can also be attributed to the disruptors likely to affect both business and procurement. We’re already well versed on innovations like 3D printing and social media, as well as water scarcity and climate change – but what of the blind spots, the things that no one is talking about yet?

What are the issues that have the potential to really shake things up? We turned to the Procurious community for answers and this is what you had to say…

Payments and costs seem to be a hot topic… Chris Smith starts things off by asking: “What about transaction costs for undertaking the procurement, for the user, the buyer and the bidders (winners and losers)? Mike Dunlop agrees, and takes the discussion further: How to best calculate the cost of transactions, the benefit of SRM as a tangible return of investment, the risk / cost of compliance of Procurement Payment cards vs loading a new supplier for low value spends?”

This prompts a reply from Cornelius du Preez who comments: “Measuring and procurement, what a headache. I’m currently doing my dissertation in the area of procurement. Al the reading of past research and case studies are really interesting, but the question that keeps coming up is the ‘How to measure….’ One of the questions I ‘m trying to get to the bottom is, ‘How to calculate procurement’s contribution on the bottom line?’ As there are many variable factors that needs to be considered, further upstream as well.”

We encourage lively discussion on Procurious, and this is exactly what we get here! Mike comes back: “My view is that anyone can negotiate. It is inherent in the human DNA and we all do it every day of our lives without realising it. But not everyone is able to – clearly articulate a specification and ensure all tender responses are like for like, create a valued weighted score card for value comparison, understand the cost of resource through the entire end to end process, look at where to reduce waste and enable people to great more value, contract management and risk mitigation (plus many more excellent tasks). 

Mike argues: “In essence Procurement should be able to easily display their value to the company or there is an argument that they shouldn’t be there. With this you can calculate the value benefit from savings, reduced waste and reporting on missed savings. This will then give you a bottom line impact of X that you can compare against the Overhead cost of the department. This would then give you a Return on Investment of the procurement department. You now have your tangible rationale as to the contribution on bottom live vs the cost of return.”

Returning our focus to procurement blindspots, Simona Pop says  “it’s prompt payments and how they could really improve supply chain health and our economy as a whole!”

Samantha Coombs believes more focus needs to be put on checks, saying: “I believe the best driver of prevention is proper checks. Ensuring there are policies in place to tackle a variety of the points you mentioned. By carrying out proper supplier due diligence then protects the company’s reputation, the people and importantly the shareholders who invest based on the appropriate management of risk.”

To round this particular topic off, Mark Johnson wanted to highlight Rogue Spending Activities, having seen this over and over in many different industries.

You can still view and add to the discussion here. Our favourite comments will be featured in a future instalment.

Supply chain transformation: Airbus 3D Prints Aeronautical Parts

Airbus A350 XWB

The new Airbus A350 XWB, an extra wide aircraft first delivered in December of last year, was built using over 1000 parts that were produced with a 3D printer.

The airplane manufacturer began a relationship with Stratsys, a 3D printing and additive manufacturing firm, in 2013 in an effort to increase supply chain responsiveness and simplify its internal processes in order to meet strict project delivery deadline for the new aircraft.

The fact that the firm is now utilising 3D printing in its supply chain, means that replacement parts can be produced on-site rather than at an interstate or overseas manufacturer. This drastically reduces lead times, as the requisite parts no longer need to be produced, processed and shipped to where they are needed.

1000 parts may sound like a lot, but in reality it is a tiny portion of what is needed to build an aircraft. However, Airbus’s move suggests that 3D printing is about to start disrupting our supply chains. These technologies have the potential to vastly change the way modern supply chains operate. If implemented properly 3D printing could slash lead times and transportation costs allowing businesses to become more self-sufficient. Stratsys certainly see it that way, defining their approach as a transformative alternative to conventional manufacturing processes.

Sigi Osagie: The Chefs in Your Procurement Kitchen

“We are born with the capacity to do extraordinary things.” 

Watch our first Big Ideas Summit keynote (part 1 of 4)

Watch Sigi’s keynote in FULL here

Sigi originally arrived in the UK as an African immigrant with holes in his shoes, penniless and no address book. Fourteen years later, he was a global director in a FTSE250 blue-chip multinational.

Today he works as a writer, speaker, business adviser and coach, drawing on insights from his atypical life journey and career success to inform and inspire others.

Procurious members can find Sigi’s full keynote here. Not a member yet? Register for free.

Watch: See more Big Ideas from our 40 influencers

What’s your Big Idea? Film it in 60 seconds or less

We’re on the hunt for YOUR Big Ideas – what are the things only you can say? 

Big Ideas Pics1

We believe everyone has a unique vantage point in the industries, communities and businesses they work in. At the Big Ideas Summit we asked our 40 thought-leaders to record their ‘Big Ideas’ live on camera for the world to see. Whether that be Tania Seary’s vision for the future of procurement networking, or Andrew MacAskill’s desire to turn the profession’s recruitment upside down – the scope for truly revolutionary ideas is almost unlimited.

We want to build on this groundswell, so now it’s over to you. We want you to share your point of view and ideas with the community by creating a video no more than 60 seconds long.

It’s really easy to create a video using your computer, phone or using Skype or YouTube. We’ve recommended the best ways to create and share your video with us below.

But why, we hear you ask.

Procurious wants you to make the most of your unique position and tell us what you think is the next Big Idea that will change the face of the procurement profession, based on some of the amazing learning and insights you have.

These videos will help to generate interest and discussion on your Big Idea, give you the chance to share your wisdom with a global procurement community and provide you with a platform to amplify your thoughts, and turn you into an influencer.

If you need inspiration our competition winner (and great Big Idea to boot) why not listen to Bertrand Maltaverne’s submission?

View videos from our 40 influencers at the Big Ideas Summit here.

How to submit your Big Idea

It doesn’t matter whether you film your submission on your phone, tablet, laptop or PC. We’ve put together a list of some of our recommended methods for reaching out.

Once you’ve completed your film, you can reach us by email (Procurious@Procurious.com); on Twitter (@procurious_) or via Skype (Procurious.HQ).

Skype

MattSkype

For an easy and painless experience, we’d recommend you record and share your Big Ideas video with us using a Skype video message.

It’s really easy to send a video message on Skype and you don’t need to be sat in front of your computer, as Skype is also available for iPhone, Android and Windows Phone.

  • Add Procurious.HQ as a contact
  • Right-click and choose the ‘Send Video Message’ option. As much as we’d love to Skype with all of you, Procurious keeps us very busy so make sure you don’t call us by mistake!
  • Skype provides you with 3 minutes to record your Big Idea: press the red ‘record’ button to begin your video message, when done hit the red button once more to stop recording.
  • Submit your video to us using the ‘send’ button next to it.

You shouldn’t need any help, but if you do refer to Skype’s step-by-step instructions on its help pages: https://support.skype.com/en/category/VIDEO_MESSAGING/

YouTube

SigiVid

Alternatively, if you have always dreamed of being an Internet star, then YouTube is for you. YouTube appeals to those of us who get a kick out of seeing how many people have watched our video.

  • Head over to https://www.youtube.com/upload and either select a readymade video to upload, or hit ‘Webcam capture’ to film your piece on the spot.
  • Select ‘Start recording’ to get the camera rolling (remembering to tick ‘Allow’ should you be prompted by YouTube’s Privacy Settings)
  • When done press ‘Stop recording’ followed by ‘Continue’.

Don’t be daunted by filling-out the ‘Basic info’ – all that’s required is a title, short description, and some tags. For your title we’d suggest using something along the lines of: My Big Idea is… [insert here]

In order to make your video easy to find, we’d recommend using the #BigIdeas2015 and Procurious tags – but feel free to add more!

Click ‘Publish’ when you’re happy and remember to send us the YouTube URL when it’s live.

Email and phone

Want to submit your video using good old-fashioned email? We’ll accept that too!

Attach your video to an email with the subject line ‘My Big Ideas Video’ and send to Procurious@Procurious.com.

If you’re using an iPhone or iPad you can also record your video using iMessage. Android and Windows Phone users can choose to use Skype (Windows Phone has Skype already built-in)

We look forward to watching all of your submissions and sharing them with the wider Procurious community!

China services PMI climbs again

hsbcchina

The HSBC China Services Purchasing Managers’ Index climbed again in March, reaching its highest level for the year. This metric, used to measure the activity of purchasing managers across China, indicates that despite a slow-down in the nation’s factories, China’s services industry is reporting reasonable growth.

The details behind the rises, which caused a significant rally in the Chinese stock market, are were outlined by Qu Hongbin, HSBC’s chief economist for China, who said in a statement “The latest set of PMI data indicated that Chinese service-sector companies had a strong start to the second quarter, with activity and new orders both rising solidly in April.”

Serving China 

China’s services industry is enormous and accounts for roughly 48.2 per cent of the nation’s economic output (significantly higher than any other sector). This sector is expected to continue to grow as the country’s citizens become increasingly wealthy.

Some analysts have issued caution over the recently released PMI figures and indeed, remain concerned over China’s economic future. When the stats used to generate the metric are reviewed more closely, it can be seen that seen the final prices charged by firms involved in the data collection are, in fact, at a 15 month low. This has prompted some analysts to suggest that firms have simply reduced costs in order to meet sales targets.

Despite these concerns, the services sector does seem to represent a shining light for the Chinese economy. Housing, exports, manufacturing and investment have all slowed in recent months. However, jobs and activity in the services industry appears to be growing.

Big Ideas Summit 2015: what the press said

Last week the world’s brightest procurement minds all collaborated at the Big Ideas Summit 2015 – powered by Procurious.

What the press were saying about Big Ideas 2015

Here’s what press and professionals alike have been saying about it…

Spend Matters:

UK editor Peter Smith reported: “Meeting Goddard was a highlight for me…

“Given it was the first Procurious event, and one that tried to do something a bit different compared to most conferences, we thought it was a real success. More to come on the day, well done to their team and I’m sure it won’t be the last Procurious event we’ll be reporting on.”

Peter’s US colleague Jason Busch added – “The Soho Hotel has a truly great small conference facility – the event, being simulcast live online, kicked off with Professor/emcee Jules Goddard, a wonderful host, facilitating an icebreaker to get the audience engaged…

On first keynote speaker Sigi Osagie, Jason commented – “I was left wanting for Sigi to flesh out his ideas a bit more as the topic is a clever one. He’s a truly gifted speaker”. If (like Jason) you want to hear more from Sigi, let us direct you in this direction: Sigi Osagie’s Big Idea on Unlocking Our People’s Passion

Jason also had the following to say about McKinsey’s Theano Liakopoulou:

“Immediately following lunch yesterday at the Procurious Big Ideas Summit, Theano, a partner and procurement and operations expert at the consultancy, woke everyone up by delivering a presentation on measuring and exploring procurement value.”

Thank you Peter and Jason!

Supply Management:

CPOs: Remember everyone can be extraordinary – Paul Snell leads with a story on Sigi. Read it here.

Three customer service lessons procurement can learn from Uber – spotlight on Chris Sawchuk’s keynote (The Hackett Group). Read it in full

Giles Breault:

We’ll just leave this Tweet from The Beyond Group’s Giles Breault right here…

giles

Lance Younger:

Lance Younger, CEO of Statess writes on LinkedInBig Disruptive Ideas – RIP The Procurement Function.

“There were some fantastic themes and insights from the participants… The debate around procurement 2030 during the Big Ideas Summit also helped to push our thinking about procurement.

Lance continues: “In reality, many big ideas merely shape the agenda, and the speed of change is limited by aspiration and ambition.  Culture and innovation within individual companies also will shape the direction and procurement’s role.” Before concluding… well, you’ll just have to pay his article a visit to find out!

Chris Lynch: `You’ve shown me the money, now show me how we’ll get there`

Rio Tinto’s CFO, Chris Lynch offers: when you’ve got a big idea that you believe in, then don’t waste the chances you get to convince others – communication will be key.

Chris Lynch talks communication

Remember that people at the top of organisations are time poor, therefore Big Ideas, backed by courage, resonate.

So if you get the opportunity to present your idea, make sure it’s punchy and grabs their attention.

Don’t overcomplicate it. And make sure you frame it so they can quickly see how it will solve their business problems.

What should give you confidence is that pitching a Big Idea should be a lot easier than a small one.

Because you are passionate about the topic, and you have sized the prize. If not, you better make sure that you are, and that you have.

We all have our own way of communicating, but two things stand out – rehearse, prepare and test.

We can all write our best ideas on a page, and even all convince ourselves we have every angle covered.

My tip is don’t just believe in yourself, test your concept first, with family, or a friend or colleague.

They will give you the feedback, and the confidence, to make sure you have properly stress-tested your idea and your plan.

If you were presenting to me, I’d want to know: what’s different about your idea? How come we haven’t been able to capture this value before?

What resources will you need to get it done, and how long’s it going to take? Don’t underestimate the time and effort it can take to drive change through an organisation.

And importantly, make sure you know how you’re going to measure success.

So the art of communicating in procurement, as it is in any field, is, once you have shown me the money, show me how we will get there.

Communicating within your own organisation, be it up or down, is one thing, but communicating across boundaries or outside to others may help you create wealth.

For it will probably be outside our own walls that new ideas are flowering or taking hold. We need people on the inside with visibility of the outside.

To act as intrapreneurs for our business and help re-invent it.

At Rio Tinto we have 60,000 people and operations in 40 countries over 6 continents. So for us social media provides a global platform to communicate and share.

I think there is a real opportunity in eLearning. You can imagine as a CFO, I see a better ROI on that than bringing hundreds of people together for training.

We live in a world of instant communication, from email to social media, but let us not overlook face to face communication, be it real – or via satellite to save money!

You can learn a heck of a lot by picking up a phone, and you can speed up and broaden your connections through social media – it can often be the shortest route to an answer and can expand your breadth of knowledge.

In a relatively small but specialised field of procurement, communication is even more important.

Accountants, well, I hate to admit it, but there are a lot of us…and we all kind of do the same job.

But if you’re a procurement professional, you may be specialised and isolated.

Social media platforms [like Procurious] may well be your best way to connect and share learnings and the experiences of others in similar circumstances.

The short distance between two points, or a knowledge gap and a solution, maybe just a phone call or email away.

Chris Lynch on why the best Big Ideas might come from our suppliers

Rio Tinto’s CFO, Chris Lynch talks partnerships.

DSC07400_2

Given the speed of change in business and procurement trends, no enterprise can afford to be an island.

Like the Internet, it is the speed of connection, and new partners bringing new ideas that will help define the pace of change and business reinvention.

Our partners, much like our friends, can point out things we didn’t see before.

That’s why partnership is so important, as is choosing our partners wisely.

Rarely do Big Ideas get advertised, for if they do they are probably now in the mainstream.

It is our partners who can help find the new ideas on the margins or periphery of our control that can help us reinvent business and create value.

On the hunt for the next Big Idea in the procurement world, we all know that the best ideas might come from our suppliers themselves.

I’ve always believed you should “reward the idea”.

If a supplier comes to you with a unique idea, do the best you can to work with them and recognise their suggestion.

Partnerships can be hard work, but they can also be more fertile and rewarding.

That is why we look to partnerships around the world.

The key to partnership must be a sense of shared value – even in tough times.

For example in the mid 90s when I was at Alcoa, we had to achieve a turnaround for an operation. If we could achieve this, it would be a win-win for us and our suppliers.

I called a town hall meeting… It was then that I confirmed the lesson, that suppliers want your business to survive, and even thrive, and are prepared to play a part in that success if they are brought on the journey.

Rather than seeing our suppliers as a cost that just needs to be controlled, recognise the value that can be unlocked by working together.

That might be changing a specification, introducing new innovations or standardising production processes, for instance.

Be clear about your objectives, and if you don’t have the expertise in-house to achieve them, then use them to help you choose the right partners, and build the strong alliances you need to succeed.

As Sam Walsh, our chief executive at Rio Tinto, said in a recent speech in Korea: “Innovate to grow, partner to succeed”. That is because solo genius is rare and partners make a difference.

There are inventors, and then there are entrepreneurs.

Look at the great entrepreneurs. They all had partners – be they in finance, technology, procurement, you name it.

At Rio Tinto our partners are behind our greatest successes – be it our customer partnerships for our Pilbara iron ore operations in Western Australia.

Or our supplier partners, such as Komatsu, who have helped lead the development of autonomous trucks.

These are huge 308 tonne, three storey-high robots that operate themselves, overseen from our Operations Centre some 1,500 km away near Perth airport.

They have hundreds of sensors that are continuously feeding information to the control centre. They are already some 15 per cent more efficient than our other trucks; they use less fuel and have less wear and tear.

They really are our version of big data in action. And this is just the tip of the iceberg.

The sensors are now appearing on all our equipment and potentially have huge benefits for the way we operate and our whole approach to maintenance and procurement.

For example, with the help of our IT experts in our Indian Excellence Centre, we can now sense the wear on individual components and better predict when a piece of equipment is going to need maintenance, rather than just using a standard hours schedule.

Ultimately the data and the role of procurement with our partners will become more important, and significantly enhance the value of the actual equipment we buy.

Technology is changing the way we operate and the way we do business, but ultimately we still need people and partners with big ideas and the commitment to getting them implemented.

In procurement it will be our partners who will help shape our future. We don’t have a view on what the future should look like, because with great partners we aim to always be one step ahead of it.

Chris was speaking at Procurious’ inaugural Big Ideas Summit as one of 40 most influential commercial thought-leaders. Learn more about the Big Ideas Summit and how to access exclusive content from the event.