Category Archives: Trending

Coca-Cola announces new CPO

coca-cola new CPO

There is movement at the top of the Coca-Cola procurement organisation.

The company announced earlier this week that Darlene Nicosia will take over the role of CPO of the Coca-Cola Company from Ronald Lewis who is moving into a new role as the senior vice president of Coca-Cola Enterprises (a subsidiary of the Coca-Cola Company). The changes will take effect on April 1st.

Speaking on the appointment of Nicosia, Ed Hays, who was recently named Coke’s next chief technical and innovation officer said:

“Darlene brings a deep understanding and appreciation of procurement strategy and execution within our Company and across our system. In her most recent role, Darlene was responsible for leading the procurement COE with a focus on capability development and execution of Global Sustainable Procurement’s Collaborative Procurement Model, and the implementation of Procure To Pay in collaboration with GBS.”

Ronald Lewis re-joins Coca-Cola enterprises having previously held roles as the organisation’s CPO and vice president of North American supply chain.

John Brock, CEO of Coca-Cola Enterprises, said: “Ron has an excellent track record of delivering results, extensive experience in the Coca-Cola bottling system, and an intimate understanding of the complexities of leading large supply chain operations in Europe and globally.”

Diageo backs out of payment term extensions

Diageo-Reserve-Collection-Group-Product-Shot

I recently wrote this post on Procurious about Diageo’s decision to alter its payment terms with UK suppliers. The overwhelming majority of you were vehemently against the practice of lengthening payment terms to pump up buyer’s coffers at the expense of suppliers.

Well it seems that Diageo, with a little encouragement from the UK government, has elected to back away from its decision to lengthen payment terms.

The company announced last Friday that it would commit to maximum 60-day terms with its small suppliers rather than the 90 days it proposed last month.

Prompt payment code

The decision is thought to have been sparked by the UK government’s recent strengthening of the Prompt Payment Code (to which Diageo is a signatory). The code looks to ensure that suppliers receive payment within a reasonable timeframe and are hence able to meet their cash flow commitments.

Diageo faced pressure from groups like the Forum of Private Business who were calling for beverage giant to be cut from the codes list of signatories as result of its decision to extend terms with suppliers.

At the announcement last Friday David Cutter, Diageo’s president of supply and procurement said:

“We fully recognise the importance of SMEs to the UK economy and to the sustainability of our own business and therefore we will commit to a maximum 60-day term for all SMEs in the UK.”

While the back down is good news for small British suppliers, the way the media statement was positioned suggests Diageo will continue to push the extended payment terms with its larger suppliers. Which begs the question… Who is large and who is small?

Blast off! NASA announce new procurement chief

NASA announce new procurement chief - Kaprice Harris

In what may be one of the most interesting jobs in procurement, NASA has announced that Kaprice Harris will take office in the space agency’s Executive Service position of Procurement Officer and chief of the Procurement Division.

Harris started her career at the NASA in 1996 and has held various roles both within and outside of the procurement function over a career spanning more than two decades.

Harris will hold responsibility for planning, organisation and establishing the strategic direction of the organisation’s procurement function.

Speaking on the appointment NASA Glenn Research Centre Director Jim Free said: “Kaprice’s agency wide experience combined with her leadership will be a valuable addition to our Procurement Division.”

International Women’s Day: it’s time to tackle career stereotypes

It’s time to tackle career stereotypes and get more women to enter ‘male professions’.

International Women's Day

The lack of women in typically male professions like engineering is being highlighted ahead of this weekend’s International Women’s Day (Sunday 8 March). Currently, just six per cent of engineers are female, one of the lowest percentages in Europe. And women are also under represented in occupations such as science, graphic design and broadcasting*.

The next president of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), Naomi Climer, believes that International Women’s Day is a good time to draw attention to the problem.

Naomi says: “When I started in engineering I was very against events or quotas to highlight the lack of women in business.  However, 20 or 30 years on, the number of female engineers remains worryingly low, despite the best efforts of all kinds of different organisations.

“Increasing the number of women in engineering and science isn’t simply a feminist issue – there is a compelling business case for it too. There simply aren’t enough engineers to meet expected demand over the next decade. So the time has come to create a step change. Otherwise we risk many more years of seeing women excluded from creative, rewarding, interesting and challenging careers in certain sectors.

“Diversity can be a very emotive issue and it is proving hard to shift subconscious social attitudes, stereotypes, and ingrained habits in schools and companies. Diversity needs to be on everyone’s agenda, not just women’s, and will only be achieved when we all have a better understanding of the unconscious bias that we have as individuals, employers and collectively as a nation. 

“Put simply, good practice that creates a level playing field for women is also generally good for everyone. We will all benefit from measures such as flexible working, better pay and a more inclusive culture. 

“But if we have roughly 50 per cent of the population who do equally well in school and university at technical subjects, who appear to join engineering in much larger numbers in some other countries, but we’re only getting about 6 per cent into the engineering workforce in the UK – something is undeniably going wrong.”

*Not just for boys campaign, Department of Work & Pensions

Elsewhere, Google’s Women in Search initiative (which will begin next week) will highlight those women who are making a difference within the field, and highlight to other women that this is a field they should be aware of as a potential career path. Visit this page for more information.

Robotics in the supply chain will enhance humans, not replace them

The mind of the machine

Could automation actually lead to humans enhancing their skills, and ultimately enable them to perform their job functions better?

Could robots replace humans in the supply chain?

Discover how Jon Gibson (Head of Logistics at global supply chain consultancy Crimson & Co) believes the growth of robotics and automation in the supply chain will actually enhance the role humans play, not replace them.

Recently, the government announced its intentions to be at the forefront of driverless technology following the approval of a new code of practice, which will be launched in the spring allowing for testing of autonomous cars. While supporters have been quick to champion the benefits of driverless technology, in terms of road safety, emissions and congestion, there are notable concerns, particularly the knock-on effects for the British supply chain industry.

Last year, a report by the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) underlined the importance of strengthening the British supply chain industry, which could potentially add a further £30bn to the British economy. A key factor within this report focused on addressing the skills shortage which exists amongst British supply chain firms, notably the need for greater STEM graduates inducted into the industry.

In light of an industry skills shortage and the growth of robotics, there have been suggestions that this could be the beginning of the end for humans across supply chains, but Gibson does not believe this to be the case:  

“If removing humans is about driving up productivity through standardising processes, improving design and sharing components across different products, it could be argued that this has always been the case in the supply chain industry. When looking particularly at the emergence of driverless cars, yes, it will mean changes to the industry but to suggest this is the start of a new era in which humans will be rendered effectively useless across the supply chain is very wide of the mark.

“Essentially, the introduction of robotics can do two things – firstly, it can replace humans. Secondly, it can make them do their jobs better. Examples of where humans might be replaced could be for tasks that require greater accuracy, such as precision cutting, or in instances where there is a need to process vast amounts of data. Processes like these are traditionally very labour intensive, so from a budgetary perspective it’s understandable why organisations pursue this route. It can also improve safety while reducing the chance of human operating error, risk of thefts, as well as the need to address wage inflation.

“What is often misunderstood is how robotics can assist humans in doing their jobs better – barcode scanning for example, reduces human error, providing huge cost savings to a business. In reality, organisations automate their supply chain to improve cost efficiencies. This might be to address issues with skills and labour shortages or align budgets – it is not always at the expense of people.”

Gibson continues: “Ultimately, we are likely to see an evolution of roles and responsibilities. For instance, machinery will need to be maintained and this could result in retraining and reskilling staff to do this. Also, in the event of an error occurring during the production line, humans need to be on hand to address this. As we get better at analysing operational effectiveness it will become clear that organisations will need to strive for a balance between automation and human involvement across their supply chain – there is no one size fits all.” 

Is Apple the industry’s whipping boy when it comes to supply chain culpability?

Apple feature in the BBC's Panorama documentary

Prompted by a post on Procurious by Kate Nicholl, I sat down and watched the BBC’s Panorama program that discussed some disturbing practices in the much-lauded supply chain of Apple, the worlds most valuable company. The BBC Panorama investigation originally aired Dec 2014, it has since been shown in Australia on ABC’s Four Corners.

The show highlighted that while Apple does a fantastic job of maintaining positive customer relationships, the same cannot be said for those working in the organisation’s supply chain.

Shortly after the original broadcast – Apple senior vice president of operations Jeff Williams sent an email to UK Apple employees stating that both he and CEO Tim Cook were: “deeply offended by the suggestion that Apple would break a promise to the workers in our supply chain or mislead our customers in any way”.

The program sent workers undercover to expose some troubling practices at a factory of a major Chinese supplier (Pegatron) and further down the company’s supply chain by investigating the dangerous, illegal and environmentally worrying tin trade that is occurring in the Bangka region of Indonesia.

The documentary has been criticised by some of being sensationalised and biased against Apple. However, its findings are truly concerning.

Some of the breaches of Apple’s supplier responsibility are listed below:

Concerning findings at Pegatron factory in China

  • Government issued personal identity card were illegally taken from workers.
  • Factory dormitory rooms were overcrowded. Despite making a commitment to only housing 8 staff members per dorm, the documentary shows examples of 12 people being crammed into these very dormitories.
  • Workers are working up to 16-hour shifts.
  • Workers are working up to 18 days consecutively.
  • Workers are so exhausted that they are falling asleep on the assembly line prompting significant health and safety concerns.
  • Workers are routinely working more than 70 hours a week. Apple’s standards state workers work no more than a 60-hour week.
  • Juveniles are working overtime and night shifts despite Apple’s commitment to the contrary.

Concerning findings in the company’s supply of tin included:

  • The detrimental impacts of tin mining sediment on local coral reefs.
  • Illegal tin operations are supplying the companies that Apple buys tin from.
  • These illegal suppliers are utilising child labour.
  • Safety conditions in the tin mines are incredibly dangerous.
  • Workers operate under the constant threat of landslides and death.

Clearly these are complex issues and it’s difficult to determine exactly were Apple’s responsibility begins and ends.

The Industry’s Whipping Boy

Apple and indeed many Apple fans have been quick to point out that the company is being held up as the whipping boy for an issue that permeates across the entire tech industry. Apple’s competitors are all likely culpable of the same indiscretions. I believe however there are legitimate reasons as to why Apple bears the brunt of these accusations.

The sheer size, value and market penetration of Apple means that our collective eyes focus on it. Our expectations of Apple are higher than those of their competition. Apple reported profits in excess of 39 billion dollars last year and the company is valued at half a trillion dollars. As the former US presidential candidate Ralph Nader points out in the documentary, there is no one better positioned to eliminate these sorts of practices than Apple.

Apple also spends a large percentage of its marketing budget positioning the company and its supply chain as sustainable. If the company wants to ride the brand benefits of being perceived as sustainable, surely it must expect some criticism when it is discovered that its commitments are not being followed through.

Keep the criticism constructive

It’s easy to over react to these sorts of programs and proclaim that you’ll never buy another Apple product. The fact of the matter is that as long as consumers want the price of their devices to remain low and as long as company’s like Apple are answerable to shareholders, they will continue to chase the lowest production costs which will unfortunately, more often than not, carry an environmental or human rights cost.

While I think it’s our obligation to continue to hold a spotlight to and criticise organisations like Apple, our criticism needs to remain constructive and cannot be done without mentioning the steps these companies are taking in their commitment to supply chain sustainability.

Last year Apple carried out 633 audits that covered over 1.6 million workers, a 40 per cent increase on the previous years figures. The company is open and transparent with its commitment to supply chain sustainability and what it expects from its suppliers. It also admits that while progress is being made, there is still a long way to go and that supply chain sustainability is something that the company needs to revisit constantly.

An issue of implementation

The most concerning elements of the documentary for me were the means that Pegatron had gone to appease Apple’s sustainability efforts without actually changing its operations.

The documentary shows that employees were ‘coached’ in how to fill out shift request forms (documents used in Apple’s supplier auditing process). Employees that did not respond by saying they were happy to work long shifts, night shifts or shifts where they must remaining standing, were told to fill in new forms, and failure to comply resulted in expulsion.

Another workaround developed for the benefit of Apple’s auditing process is the renaming of ‘overtime’ on employee pay checks to ‘bonuses’, thus hiding the amount of overtime employees have been forced to work.

To me, the Panorama documentary points to a fundamental breakdown in the implementation and execution of Apple’s sustainability project. While the commitments are in place on paper and efforts to implement them have been made, the company has not yet (and I stress the word ‘yet’) managed to instil these practices within its supply chain. If the evasive practices Pegatron has implemented to falsify Apple’s auditing documents are anything to go by, the road to implementing these measures will be a long and challenging one.

What are your thoughts on Apple’s supply chain? Where does its responsibility end? Is it fair that Apple bears the brunt for the whole tech industry? How does your organisation implement sustainability measures in its supply chain?

Chinese New Year – What you need to know

The world’s largest human migration is well underway as more than 3 billion trips are made by students, migrant workers and office employees journeying home to celebrate Chinese New Year.

What does Chinese New Year mean for supply chains?

Spanning a total of 15 days, Chinese New Year – also known as the Spring Festival – is the longest and most important national holiday in China.

Celebrations, however, extend far beyond Chinese borders with roughly one sixth of the world’s population set to welcome the Year of Goat.

Ten years ago, the Chinese New Year holiday had little impact outside of China. But today, the oversized influence of China on global manufacturing and financial markets means celebrations will create significant ripples for business and the world economy.

The ‘world’s factory’ shuts down

The vast majority of Chinese factory workers live away from home, so the New Year – a period marked by culturally important ‘new year visits’ and reunion meals with kin, means that virtually all workers will down tools and embark on (often lengthy) journeys home to celebrate with family.

The complete shut down of ‘the world’s factory’ poses a headache for any business with supply chain operations in China (or any country with a large Chinese-speaking population for that matter), including: Taiwan, Vietnam, Singapore and Malaysia.

And the chaos doesn’t end with manufacturing – pilots, freight workers, stevedores and truck drivers all head home and logistics grind to a standstill. Freight simply does not move for the week surrounding Chinese New Year.

In 2015, New Year celebrations officially begins on February 19th and end on February 25th, although workers are known to take up to two-weeks in advance, to make the long journey home.

Experts advise businesses should plan for no production or dispatches leaving China during the entire month of February, and for reduced output during the first half of March.  FedEx, UPS, and DHL post the expected delays on their websites, so business and consumers alike should utilize that information.

Beware of quality drops

Businesses are also advised to pay particular attention to their QA processes immediately after Chinese New Year, which is a prime time for Chinese workers to switch jobs.

As you’d expect, the impact of this spike in turnover is that inexperienced staff with little or no training often run post-New Year production, and staff shortages can hold-up production.

Global Shopping Spree

The news is not all bad for business: Chinese New Year is symbolically an auspicious time to buy and wear new clothes to signify the New Year. As Chinese prosperity continues to rise, this means big business for luxury brands. Last year, Chinese spending in Britain alone jumped 23 per cent over February as compared to 2012.

British retailers, including Harrods, Selfridges and Burberry, have also been quick to jump on the band wagon and are selling their own branded ‘hong-bao’ or red-envelopes traditionally given to Chinese children at this time of year.

How to join in the celebrations

If you can’t make it to The Bund for this year’s best celebrations, here are just some of the other places you can welcome in the New Year:

London – Join the celebrations on 22 February from 10am to 6pm in Trafalgar Square, which include a parade through the West End.

Melbourne – Chinese dragons, lions and street performers will fill Little Bourke Street on 22 February 10am – 10pm and a weekend of celebrations and heavenly hawker food will be available along Crown Riverfront.

New York – More than 6,000 people are expected to turn out for the Annual Lunar New Year Parade on 22 February which will wind its way through Chinatown.

Singapore – The celebrations go on all month long – just head to Chinatown!

San Francisco – Boasting the largest parade outside of China, catch all the action in Chinatown on Saturday, March 7, 2015 5:15pm-8pm

And so with that: “Gong Xi Fa Cai” to all our Procurious members celebrating in 2015!

Read more about the impact the Year of the Goat has on the world economy here.

Work-life balance & job satisfaction more important than salary to procurement workers

Work-life balance and job satisfaction trump salary as the most important aspects of working life – according to recruitment specialist REED.

Work-life balance is more important than salary according to Reed

Breakdown across the ages reveals changing priorities when it comes to work and play.

With research revealing that workers in procurement roles rate work-life balance and job satisfaction as more important than salary, recruitment specialist REED is urging employers to give consideration to their recruitment and retention strategies.

The poll of over 1,600 workers by YouGov, in association with the launch of the REED 2015 Salary Guides, questioned workers on their attitudes to work, career aspirations and regrets.

What really matters at work

Within the findings, REED identified key trends which indicate how UK workers’ priorities change over the course of their career – which could have a significant effect on the talent management strategies of many UK firms.

With 36 per cent of workers in procurement claiming that good job satisfaction is the single most important aspect of working life, followed by the need for good work-life balance (28 per cent), it’s no longer just about the salary package.

Results revealed – what matters most across the ages

18-24                     Salary and benefits (38%)

25-34                     Job satisfaction (31%)

35-45                     Work-life balance (31%)

45-54                     Salary and benefits (25%)

55+                         Job satisfaction and work-life balance (joint top – 32%)

Career carousel

The poll revealed that one in eight workers (13 per cent) in procurement are unsatisfied in their role, with one in five (20 per cent) planning to look for a new job over the next 12 months.

While slightly more than one in ten workers (13 per cent) have stayed loyal to the same employer, twice as many (23 per cent) have moved workplaces more than seven times. When asked why they changed employer, procurement and supply chain workers reported better prospects or promotion (43 per cent), better salary (41 per cent) and boredom with their current role (28 per cent) as the top three motivators.

Gert Nzimiro, executive divisional director at Reed Procurement & Supply Chain, said: “In a candidate-led market such as this, employers need to think hard about how they attract and retain procurement staff. What this research shows is that although salary is very important, now we’re out of the recession it’s no longer just about pay – employers need to consider many other factors, such as flexible working and how they can offer the greatest job satisfaction. 

“Our research shows that in the last 12 months, 29 per cent of procurement and supply chain workers received some form of pay rise, and almost a quarter (24 per cent) received a bonus. However, with 22 per cent having received no benefits, the fact that 20 per cent are planning to look for a new role over the next 12 months, is hardly surprising. Employers need to start taking action and think wider than just the salary package.”

The Reed Procurement & Supply Chain 2015 Salary & Market Insight report can be obtained at www.reedglobal.com/salaryguide

Sustainable and Social Procurement – Are We Doing Enough?

Sustainability and social procurement

Even though sustainable and social procurement are currently high-profile topics, it’s been hard to get people excited about them. This is down in part to a lack of consensus on what they are and what people should be doing on a day-to-day basis.

The question is how can we, as procurement professionals, change this?

What are Sustainable and Social Procurement?

A good place to start is a brief definition of both. It’s tricky as there isn’t really a consensus, but these are the most common ones.

Sustainable Procurement – The process for meeting the needs of the current generation for goods, services, utilities and works while considering the overall impact on the environment and wider society.

Social Procurement – A strategic approach to the delivery of organisational objectives while delivering social benefit.

The Current Situation

Increasing numbers of organisations have implemented codes of conduct, ethics and sustainability policies and spend targets for social enterprises. Initiatives such carbon neutral operations and ethical sourcing provide good examples of organisations considering the impact of their operations on the environment and wider society.

And consumers have begun to expect this. Around 88 per cent of consumers would choose to buy a product with a social or environmental benefit in a like-for-like comparison, while 90 per cent of Americans say they are more likely to trust and remain loyal to brands backing social causes.

However, recent high-profile examples, such Rana Plaza in Bangladesh and the UK horse-meat scandal, highlight the importance of companies ensuring that these standards are upheld throughout the supply chain.

So what is holding organisations back?

A lack of understanding is one of the key reasons for organisational inaction. Other common reasons inaction include:

  • Increased cost
  • Resistance to change
  • Lack of management support
  • Increased time to undertake sourcing activities
  • Inability to find ‘social enterprises’ or lack of response from them

And the reality is?

The reality is that all these reasons are surmountable. This is where Procurement must step up and take the lead.

As Procurement touches all parts of the organisation, it can help to ensure that the key decision makers are involved from the outset, helping with both executive buy-in and resistance to change.

Working with external stakeholders can provide both innovation and new ideas, ultimately lowering the Total Cost of Ownership for ‘green’ products. Once the processes are seen as part and parcel of sourcing activities, the time cost is lowered too.

Finally, companies can engage with organisations such as Social Enterprise UK and Social Traders (Australia), who can assist procurement departments in getting involved with social enterprises.

The Future

Experts have identified trends in sustainable supply chains for the coming year, including:

  • Better resource management – focus on codes of conduct, chains of custody and supply chain reporting and evaluation
  • Innovative bio-based materials – less use of primary resources and increased use and development of renewable materials
  • Eco-efficient operations – organisations finding a better balance between economics and the environment

Social media will play a key role too. 64 per cent of millennials use social media to address companies about social and environmental issues, and 36 per cent of consumers say they mainly share content to promote the causes they care about.

What can I do?

  • As a consumer, try to buy brands linked to sustainable or social activities
  • When comparing two like-for-like products, choose the ‘green’ option if you can
  • Integrate sustainability and social procurement into your procurement processes
  • Make a case for your company working with social enterprises and having spend targets for them
  • Ensure all the suppliers in your supply chain are signed up to your code of conduct
  • Leverage social media to highlight your success and set a benchmark for other procurement teams to achieve.

Reading and Reference

Loyalty and Trust for Social Causes: http://instamun.org/90-of-americans-more-likely-to-trust-brands-that-back-social-causes/

Social or Environmental Benefit: http://www.conecomm.com/stuff/contentmgr/files/0/e3d2eec1e15e858867a5c2b1a22c4cfb/files/2013_cone_comm_social_impact_study.pdf

Social media habits: http://www.conecomm.com/csr-and-millennials

DHL talk key packaging trends of 2015

Ahead of the UK’s biggest packaging event later this month Paul Young – Head of Packaging Services at DHL Supply Chain, shared his thoughts on future packaging trends with Procurious. 

DHL packaging innovations

Taking place at Birmingham’s NEC on 25-26 February 2015, Packaging Innovations 2015 will bring together the very best in the packaging and print industry from right across the globe.

Now in its tenth year, the expo will be home to  over 350 exhibitors specialising in all aspects of packaging from materials and design, to machinery, new technologies and equipment.

Here’s what Paul had to say:

 What innovations are enabling new capabilities for packaging?

From the use of new substrates to digital technology, a number of innovations are enabling new capabilities for packaging. Edible and dissolvable packaging are becoming more prominent as companies focus on their environmental agendas, whilst QR codes have created packaging capable of communicating with the consumer in a more interactive way.

It’s important that packaging solutions should fit the product and company values. Creating edible cups, for example, will emphasise a brand’s environmental credentials and reduce waste, whilst packaging that incorporates a digital element can engage consumers with the wider brand on multiple platforms.

What are the key packaging trends of 2015?

A study commissioned by Tetra Pack found that 89 per cent of consumers prefer to buy products in recyclable packages. This is therefore a key trend for 2015. As consumers are increasingly aware of environmental concerns, they wish to make efforts to cut down on their personal environmental impact.

Digital print is another trend to watch. Currently, labelling has been the area most impacted by digital print, however as the quality of products has significantly improved we expect to see more packaging created in this way over the year.

Is sustainable packaging high on the agenda for many customers? 

Sustainable packaging has a number of benefits for customers. It allows customers to demonstrate their environmental credentials and improve brand perception as well as reducing unnecessary, non-recyclable wastage.

Computer manufacturer Dell, have been using bamboo to ship 70 per cent of their laptops and packaging multiple products in the same box where appropriate. This strategy aims to save Dell US$18 million between 2008 and 2018 as well as generating substantial environmental benefit.

Are there any new ways in which packaging waste is being reduced in the manufacturing process?

Minimising the packaging size for any given product reduces packaging waste during the manufacturing process. Recently, Chainalytics, a supply chain consultation and analytics organisation, reduced the size of packaging for a prepared food product by one eighth of an inch and in doing so eliminated 146 tonnes of paper and cardboard annually.

Creating custom sized boxes for less-than-full-case orders is another way in which packaging waste can be reduced with smaller boxes able to compactly hold products, thus eliminating excess wastage.

Which new technologies are increasing packaging efficiency?

Technology, such as ‘on-demand’ packaging equipment, creates custom sized packaging and significantly improves packaging efficiency.

Office giant Staples has been using this cutting edge technology to create 6,000 to 8,000 custom sized boxes each day so that 30 per cent of the orders the company ships are now custom sized. As well as enhancing the consumer’s experience of the package, this has enabled Staples to accommodate more orders in each delivery, transporting products with increased efficiency.

What mistakes are companies [still] making when it comes to choosing their packaging strategy?

Companies are much more aware of the importance of packaging however some mistakes are nonetheless made. For example, online retailers often do not consider the impact of the packaging they choose for specific products. This can lead to potentially harmful situations for the consumer, for example, liquids packaged in basic cardboard boxes, highlighting the need for effective, product specific packaging.

Many companies still need to be aware of what packaging strategy is most advantageous to their business. Whilst sustainable packaging is of importance to many consumers, re-usable packaging may instead reduce waste further and reap financial better benefits.