A useful tool for developing cultural intelligence is the Cultural Mirror, which plots culture across nine dimensions…
As part of our ongoing article series on Cultural intelligence (CQ) we are discussing each of the four individual components of CQ and how they can be applied to effectively work across cultures. In earlier articles we discussed what Cultural Intelligence is and CQ Drive, which is the motivation that individuals have in approaching and interacting with different cultures. Now we move onto the next component which is CQ Knowledge.
CQ Knowledge refers to your own personal knowledge and understanding of other cultures. Differences and similarities between cultures can be assessed in terms of core values, beliefs, norms and behaviour.
A useful tool for developing CQ Knowledge is the Cultural Mirror, which plots a culture on nine dimensions. These dimensions are based on the work of anthropologist Geert Hofstede, Fons Trompenaars and Asma Abdullah that I amalgamated. The Nine Dimensions of Culture provides us with a continuum of values and by exploring each of these and where a culture sits on the continuum, we are able to gain insight into the culture itself and how it operates. It is critical to firstly appreciate where you sit on the cultural mirror yourself.
Here is the Cultural mirror and the Nine dimensions:
We will look at the first three dimensions in this article and understand what they are, how they are applicable and provide some tips on how to navigate these cultural differences.
Dimension One: Relationships – Task
In some cultures around the world the focus in the early stages of interactions is on building the relationship. In these cultures, getting to know the people and establishing trust is much more important than simply achieving the task. Examples of countries on the relationship end of the continuum are Saudi Arabia and Brazil. In other cultures the initial priority is on getting the task done. This is not to say that the relationship is not important, however the focus is primarily on getting the task done before building the relationship. Examples of countries that are on this end of the continuum would be Australia, Germany and Finland. In both situations, the outcome is to get the task done but the approaches are different.
Tips for those coming from a relationship oriented culture working with a task oriented culture:
- Be focused and clear on outcomes
- Give clear instructions about the task
Tips for those coming from a task oriented culture working with a relationship oriented culture:
- Spend time initially building the relationship
- Invest in small talk to make people feel more comfortable
Dimension Two: Harmony – Control
This is the view of how humans deal with the environment, nature and with people around us. People from harmony based cultures believe we need to live in harmony with nature and have an external locus of control. They believe in concepts such as yin and yang, fate, destiny and karma. Countries which are more on the harmony end of the continuum include Pakistan and China. Conversely, people from control based cultures believe that you are the master of your own destiny. You are in control of your life and you need to control the environment. Countries more towardes the control continuum are the USA and Switzerland.
Tips for those coming from a Harmony based culture working with a Control Culture:
- Be aware that rigorous debate maybe encouraged
- Be conscious of delivering on timelines
Tips for those coming from a Control based culture working with a Harmony Culture:
- Be mindful that open conflict is likely to be avoided
- Learn how to disagree in a polite manner
Dimension Three: Shame – Guilt
In shame orientated cultures, avoiding a ‘loss of face’ is important. Thus, what others think of you and how they judge you is a strong motivator. Examples of countries which are more on the shame end of the continuum are India and Japan. Conversely, in guilt based cultures, it is more about up to the individual to judge themselves on their conduct. Guilt based cultures include Italy and Argentina.
Tips for those coming from a shame based culture working with those from a Guilt Culture:
- Allow time for experimentation and brainstorming of ideas
- Appreciate that candour may be present and encouraged in discussions
Tips for those coming from a Guilt based culture working with a Shame Culture:
- Encourage participation through group based tasks to remove attention from individuals which may cause “loss of face”.
- Do not expect public or rigorous debate
For the three dimensions we have discussed, please consider where your cultural preferences are and how that influences your interactions with others from different cultures?