Still struggling to explain procurement to your friends and relatives? This festive season, why not put it in easily understandable terms – using your Christmas turkey?
“So, er … Cindy – what is it you actually do?”
It’s the holiday season, which means
that at some point you’re likely to find yourself making small talk at a social
event with someone who is showing polite interest in what you do for a living.
The trouble is, the word “procurement”
is quite often met with a blank look. I know that I certainly had no idea what
the term meant the first time it was mentioned, and even today I’m still
discovering that there’s way more to procurement than the word suggests.
So, how should you answer someone who
presses you on what procurement actually is?
Don’t be boring
Let’s have a look at some of the common
definitions of procurement that come up with a basic Google search.
“Procurement is the process of finding and agreeing to terms, and acquiring goods, services, or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process.”
Sorry, I think I
nodded off in the middle of reading that! Apart from being wordy and dull, the
real problem with this definition is that it talks about process rather
than outcomes. Nobody cares about tenders or competitive bidding
processes. They’d rather hear about outcomes such as money saved, the
eradication of modern slavery, and environmental benefits.
In its whitepaper on
this very topic, CIPSA canvassed its members to come up with this definition:
“Procurement is the business management function that ensures identification, sourcing, access and management of the external resources that an organisation needs or may need to fulfil its strategic objectives.”
soporific. What’s needed is a definition that explains procurement in a way any
layperson would understand.
Don’t make it just about buying
Usually, my advice would be to keep your definition as simple as possible. But oversimplifying procurement inevitably ends up with procurement being described as “buying” or “purchasing” only.
I once witnessed a CPO dad telling his six-year-old daughter: “I do the shopping for my organization; I’m the one pushing the giant shopping trolley.” It’s a great image, but procurement does so much more than sourcing products and services.
Without trying to cram everything a
procurement professional does into your answer (the other person will roll
their eyes and walk away), try to capture some of the activities procurement
does beyond sourcing: identifying cost savings, building relationships,
managing risk, driving innovation and sustainability.
Procurement and the Christmas turkey
Let’s assume you’re sitting around the
table at Christmas lunch when your partner’s elderly and inquisitive great-aunt
asks you what procurement is. While you take a few seconds to consider your
answer, your gaze rests on the magnificent turkey in front of you.
Why not use the turkey to help
illustrate what procurement does? Let’s give it a try:
“Well, Aunt Edna, take this turkey as an example. Someone here had to go to the shops and buy that turkey – that’s simple enough. But imagine if you worked for a company that wanted to buy 100,000 turkeys.
It would be procurement’s job to first of all understand exactly what type of turkeys the company needs. Then we’d look around for suppliers who can not only reliably fulfill an order this large, but do it on time, with every turkey meeting quality expectations. Procurement would negotiate with that turkey supplier to get the best-possible price by seeking a bulk purchase discount.
But it’s not just about reliability, quality and price – it’s also about sustainability and social outcomes. Is there a supplier who breeds turkeys in a more sustainable way than others?
Are the turkeys cruelty-free and free-range?
Are the human workers paid fairly, and do they work in safe conditions?
Can we spend our turkey budget with a minority-owned supplier, or one that focuses on positive social outcomes such as hiring workers with disabilities?
What else can that supplier do for us? Is there some sort of innovation they can come up with (such as cheaper or more sustainable packaging) that would be beneficial for both my company and the supplier?
So you see, Edna … (oh, she’s fallen asleep).”
Looking for more inspiration to help
you explain procurement to others? Check out these other resources:
The core activity of Procurement 4.0 will be to deliver <<as a service>> in the same way that cloud technology has evolved…
At Ivalua Now The Art of Procurement earlier this month,Emmanuel Erba, Group Chief Procurement Officer – Executive Vice President -Capgemini discussed what the journey leading us to Procurement 4.0 could look like.
In an unprecedented period of technological disruptions, we simply cannot escape them. Emanuel advised that procurement professionals choose to see this as a realm of opportunity and question how to deliver all the promises of digital transformation to our clients.
The procurement environment is changing and this must be embraced or the profession will sink like a stone, he warned.
Cloud : Cloud is now the primary way of delivering and consuming IT – it’s the new normal. No one can imagine running a business without cloud computing
Cybersecurity: Last year, 689 million people globally were victims of cybercrime. By 2020 60 per cent of businesses will suffer major service failures. In today’s world, no CEO goes to bed certain that tomorrow their company will not to be impacted by a cyber threat. Cybersecurity needs to be integrated within our systems
Business Platforms: These are a core feature of our current landscape. Business platforms have enabled getting the client closer to the supplier
AI and automation: This will strongly disrupt data gathering and processing. Repetitive and mundane tasks will be automated
What would your CEO say if you asked them what their priorities are? It’s likely that the way you manage costs is not high in the agenda. It’s important to understand what top management wants and what your clients expect and then work out how your procurement team can address these needs.
Emmanuel believes that the core activity of procurement 4.0 will be to deliver <<as a service>> in the same way that cloud technology has evolved.
Five forces driving the market towards <<as a service>>
Time to scale – The speed at which the biggest brands are growing is ever-increasing. For organisations including Youtube, Amazon and Android the time taken to go from 0-80 per cent WW market share is only five years
Disintermediate– Direct access to the resource to capture value – for example Uber, AirBnB and Apple
Go to market – GTM via most powerful marketplaces powered by AI, automation, analytics. For example, digital ads sold Teslas with $70 million in advertising investments
Revenue share – All of these factor are funded by 20-30 per cent revenue share model and leverage of client assets
Investment power – Free cash flow generated enables immense CAPEX ability and acquisitions
5 steps to providing procurement <<as a service>>
For procurement, the 4.0 wave should
Integrate disruptions – let’s not ignore disruptions, Emmanuel argues, they are much more powerful than us!
Gear its people to embrace – Globalise!
Position its role as aggregator of services, either internal or external, and map them to the business outcomes of the organisation
Adopt the platforms that will increase the speed of execution, the automation and the data insights
Think not only bottom line impact but being a Growth Enabler
In the <<as a service>> world, you don’t need to integrate everything vertically, but rather focus on your key differentiators and aggregate other services in the most effective way thinking in terms of meaningful outcomes.
Procurement as a service can address sizable needs both in direct and indirect spend. As Emmanuel revealed Procurement cloud addresses a $5 trillion scope.
If procurement stays in its traditional role within the organisation, I believe will not achieve its potential growth.
Last year we asked a group of our customers why they ‘#loveprocurement’, and the answers were really a great testament to the evolving role of procurement. Ivalua is a company that was founded to serve the needs of procurement departments. We are very passionate about what we do, but even we were astonished at the wave of procurement love which came our way when we asked the question “Why do you #loveprocurement?” Here are some of the highlights:
A business function in the midst of a huge evolution, moving from optimising costs to becoming the creator of value and growth
Most procurement leaders have focused on some element of cost reduction and this remains an important area of focus. However, we are now at a point where procurement needs to, and can, look beyond cost savings and move to planning for a seismic change. No-one wins the race by just being good enough. In business being as good as your competitors will not ensure your future success. If you do not innovate you will fade away. We asked professionals why they love their jobs so much, and many called out procurement as being a highly innovative and dynamic department, full of creative people adding huge value to their organisations. Does this sound like you?
Last year we worked extensively with The Hackett Group and they published two excellent reports,
State of Procurement Digital Transformation, Part 1: Value Drivers and Expectationsand Lessons Learned by Early Adopters, Part 2. In these reports they talk about getting the basics right and procurement getting its house in order ie building a data centre of excellence, getting stakeholders onboard, The latest report from The Hackett Group, Procurement Key Issues 2019, shows how things are moving on this year. Procurement organisations can move beyond best in class, and clearly the will of procurement teams is there to do this. However there needs to be better alignment between procurement and its business goals. If there is a focus on analytical capabilities (which there is), there must also be teams and individuals brought in with the skills to make this happen, that is when procurement will move to the stage of offering competitive advantage, rather than just as good as the competition.
The future of our profession is not written in stone. It is because of this that it is a passionate
adventure for creative people
In a recent blog, Ivalua CMO Alex Saric talks recruitment as being one of the top issues for CPOs and their Senior Directors. What is clear from the comment above, is that the procurement industry is attracting top talent. The comment was repeated by many professionals, and what comes across is that people working in procurement are going above and beyond what might have traditionally expected from this sector. Wolfgang Groening, Head of Procurement Sourcing & Vendor Management at Deutsche Telekom talks in this short video about the fact that he loves to innovate. Wolfgang in particular calls out digital innovation and how this is allowing organisations like Deutsche Telekom to proactively look for ways to bring more innovation, rather than sticking with the transactional elements of procurement alone.
Fannie Mae, like many other organisations, are recruiting procurement experts that can bring industry knowledge and market insight. These experts are addressing their organisations’ needs to know what are the key trends in the marketplace, who are the movers and shakers in the market and where is innovation coming into play. This is so far from the traditional role of procurement as we could get. Sylvie Noel, CPO of French insurance giant Covéa speaks plainly when she says that has modernised her organisation’s procurement function and that now internal stakeholders or customers now have all the information they need from procurement and they either go for it or they don’t (her words). In Covéa, people can no longer moan about the ‘procurement black tunnel’, because Sylvie has brought in a tool which enables highly skilled procurement professionals to interact seamlessly with their customers, cutting out precious time which can be spend on new product innovations.
A function which has a significant impact on the bottom line AND on the TOP line of an organisation.
It is a window of innovation from the outside
If procurement stays in its traditional role, the organisation, I believe will not achieve its potential growth. If procurement is just there to be the police and control cost, then that’s not good enough. Each department in any organisation of a reasonable size is making decisions every day which cost the company money. I’ve worked in marketing for 20 years, and some of the decisions I’ve seen made, and no doubt have made myself, have not always been 100 per cent well thought out! Marketing people are creative, last minute merchants, and this can mean that you do not always dot the Ts and cross the Rs. Procurement’s stakeholders, like marketing, need help as they too are going through a massive digital growth curve. I should know – I am a procurement stakeholder. As my department, marketing, steps into the great digital unknown, in a market that is constantly evolving we need skilled procurement professionals to help us make decisions which will be strategic to the company, and we are looking for that expertise and partnership. We need help to look at the innovations in our sector, and strong leadership in both marketing and procurement to make sure we are embracing new technologies, spending the company’s money wisely and driving growth. In addition, marketing and procurement departments need to be recruiting the sorts of individuals who collaborate by nature, who see the bigger picture, who are able to dream big, and also keep the end goal in mind.
What is clear from our #loveprocurement campaign and the answers that you gave us is that many of you love your jobs and are really passionate about the direction in which procurement is going. You are also clear that procurement can make a huge contribution to the bottomline and growth of your organisations. Now you need to make sure that your stakeholders feel this passion and begin to feel your influence on the direction your organisations are going.
How do you motivate your procurement team to reach peak performance? Start by asking the right questions.
Procurement is a highly specialized field in most organizations, one that develops leaders as change agents creating value in literally every space that they touch. With the advent of the digital era, there is a greater need to understand and implement technology to foray into unconventional territories and look for hidden value. Thus, motivating the Procurement teams to look for new ways of creating and driving innovation becomes critical in present times.
As we look at motivating Procurement teams, it is important to analyze how the professionals working in different Procurement jobs think about their roles. The recent Procurement 2030 report, courtesy Procurious & Michael Page pointed out the insight that most Procurement CPOs consider talent development and retention as a key focus area for future. Thus, it is safe to say that motivating teams would be a top priority for talent retention in Procurement. This report also highlighted that the buyers and category managers consider almost half of their work as tactical vs strategic, and that almost half of the work can be automated i.e. it consists of repeatable tasks. These are useful considerations in understanding the current scenario before thinking about the next-level progress.
So what could be the ways of motivating Procurement teams into
Based on my discussion with Procurement colleagues across industries, I have come to believe that the right organizational structure in Procurement is a critical first step towards having a productive and engaged workplace. We have seen many waves of changes in Procurement structure across industries over the last few years. First, there were location focused roles, then the category management roles came into the picture. Slowly, the buyer roles also became more globalized versus being local or regional over time. Thus, the Procurement organization has kept evolving.
(1) Evolution of global category management: Most buyers
today realize that category management is the way to be and global structures
provide maximum visibility to drive change, thereby it is a welcome change to
most of us. However, due to many continuous changes, it seems like there is a
tendency for some ambiguity structure wise in many workplaces. I recall a peer
from a mid-sized organization who had remarked in a forum that he liked
building expertise in the global category manager role but at many times, he
felt that he was doing the work which was distracting him from his core
priorities of understanding business needs and finding creative solutions with
the help of his supply base. It is certainly true that organizational
structures were not intended to be a barrier when they were put in place.
However, often the buyers at entry and mid-level spend valuable time looking
for clarity about what they are supposed to do, as core priorities seem not so
core when laden with structural challenges.
(2) One size does not fit all: Some organizations follow one structure strictly i.e. they have either the category management specific or location specific Procurement roles, while some have a mixed structure depending on business and country-specific supply needs. Depending on the size of the organization, there could also be a matrix or a hierarchical structure. It is often noticed that layers of hierarchy also lead to slower alignment and execution, thereby affecting creativity. In the face of further change, it would be good if leaders re-assess the current organizational structure that they have and analyze if it is set up for maximum effectiveness. We think about factors such as our business needs and supply needs while setting up roles, but with time as things change, it is good to re-assess design by deep diving internally into Procurement desk responsibilities.
(3) Internal feedback and self assessment to rescue: In the quest to motivate teams and help them deliver with effectiveness, it would be paramount to see where the teams spend most of their time and make changes that help simplify the structure while driving quicker actions. So look internally and ask yourself- Are your organisational structures distracting your teams? Do your teams think they are spending valuable time and energy on tasks which they should not be doing as they do not add value? Is your organizational complexity weighing them down, rather than helping them focus on business needs and external market evolution? A deep self-assessment and appropriate internal feedback could help provide the right design for the future. This could also be the way to get buyers to go deeper on building internal and external stakeholder relationships and removing some tactical tasks to drive efficacy.
The current digital era is the era of employee engagement. We have come a long way from the factory age where work was repeatable and top-down approach worked. Now, the best organizations are the ones where employees can feel understood, valued and trusted. Hence, the role of managers as coaches becomes all the more important.
(1) Coaching by asking right questions: I have
often thought that buyers are prone to considering some strategic tasks as
tactical because that is how these appear superficially. For example, an area
new to Procurement where no one has evaluated the scale before could appear so
in some cases. Then, for some time the buyer would only manage it as a low
priority tactical item, not realizing the full value it can bring to the table
if its potential is realized. When I was buying Facilities for Middle-East and
Africa region, it was considered a tactical area until we saw the benefit of
leveraging full scale by engaging competitive new players in the changing
market landscape. Had we not analyzed this area internally and externally, it
would continue to be labeled ‘tactical’. The key thus, is getting the right
coaching and input, and being asked the right questions to look deeper rather
than scratch the surface.
(2) Coaching by internalizing Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs: Good
coaches have an understanding of human behavior and motivation. The oldest
model known in understanding human behavior is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of
needs. This can help managers to understand human behavior in office settings
also. Usually, people have basic physiological, safety and belonging needs that
would require fulfilment before they can reach self-esteem and finally the
self-actualization stage. Of course, the peak performance is something that
happens at uppermost levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This model can help
both the coach and the coachee to assess themselves. Moreover, it provides
the coach with a framework to understand the team first so that they can find
ways to motivate people positively. A good coach can notice performance
variations in the light of this model for themselves and the team, and use it
to point them in the right direction.
(3) Coaching by understanding Losada line: Losada line
is also an interesting principle in organizational behavior which measures the
positivity to negativity in a system. What it states is that for any
positive change to happen, a ratio of 3 to 6 is required. Lower than 3 would
not be optimum for a good performance. To give you an estimate, successful
marriages usually have a Losada ratio of 5 or above. This can be used by
coaches to provide feedback and nudge the teams towards high performances.
In conclusion, as organizations get serious about leading with purpose and boosting positive collaboration for their employees, coaching and re-assessing organizational structures, on top of the existing mechanisms of training and rewards, could help unearth valuable insights paramount for their transformation into more evolved workplaces. While this happens, all of us in Procurement would need to be open to learning new things and adopting a growth mindset. In the words of Satya Nadella, as stated in his book Hit Refresh – “After all, how we experience the world is through communications and collaboration. If we are interested in machines that work with us, then we can’t ignore the humanistic approach.” We need to continue to bring humans closer by embracing collaboration and removing barriers. Do you think this could apply to your organization? What other strategies have helped in your journey?A
Just as the organisation’s CIO has been struggling with “shadow IT” the CPO is now faced with similar challenges as company employees armed with a credit card and a browser can buy almost anything online.
For years the enterprise CIO has been struggling with Shadow IT which has been described as “IT systems or solutions used within an organisation without the approval, or even the knowledge, of corporate IT” . This is often referred to as the consumerisation of IT.
Various IT industry analysts reports state that Shadow IT is somewhere between 30-50 per cent of the total IT spend in large organisations and this is a large number considering that this is IT spend that has not gone through the sanctioned IT function.
Shadow IT has transitioned into Shadow Procurement thanks to the rise of digital cloud marketplaces
The ‘shadow’ problem is no longer confined to the CIO with
the CPO also facing a growing population of enterprise staff
that procure and subscribe to many services in the cloud that havent been through the sanctioned process and often they are not allocated to the correct budget codes.
Thanks to the public cloud there are many new digital marketplaces that have lowered the barrier to entry for the end user for procuring a range of products and services (e.g. Amazon, eBay, Alibaba, Google, Rackspace, Microsoft, even crowd sourcing).
Also of concern is that shadow procurement can also include the teams of people hired by the business to provide various services across the business (often these costs are hidden in project budgets or expense codes and not shown against the correct budget categories).
While the CPO aims for compliance the shadow procurement means a further loss of control
For the CIO the issue of Shadow IT often means they are excluded from the decisions of how the IT services are supported as well as assessing the risks of what is being purchased such as security.
Similalry for the CPO the issue of Shadow Procurement often means that they are excluded from important commercial decisions particulalry when the staff member blindly clicks the “accept terms and conditions” button when buying products and services online. These online terms will always favour the supplier and may not satisfy the commercial appetite or the target price point. Only when things come unstuck will these accepted terms and conditions see the light of day.
The rise of shadow procurement flies in the face of the respected analysis of CPO surveys over recent years that continue to place “Procurement Compliance” as one of the top three challenges that the CPO is focused on addressing*.
When Procurement is seen as beeing a blocker then Shadow Procurement is likely to be, or become, an increasing problem
While I have discussed that the rise of the easily accessible digital marketplace has contributed to the increase in shadow procurement there are likely to be a range of other factors that will also determine the size of the problem in your own organisation:
Business and Procurement mis-alignment
Where procurment is seen as a blocker and the process takes too long then the employees will find a way to work around Procurement to achieve business and project goals
Lack of clear roles and responsibilities and an inneffective governance structure
Where the roles are not clear and the governance is inneffective, or not well understood, then the employees may take this as a green light to hire a shadow team within their project or business unit. In some organisations it can become an unnofficially sanctioned fixture
Many organisations are decentralised and large programs/projects operate separately to the Business-as-usual functions such as Procurement
Because many companies are decentralised and indirect spend is spread across departments and projects, there is typically little input from procurement.
Little or no use of big data analytics to understand the indirect spend occuring as part of the Shadow Procurement problem
Indirect spend is often very difficult to understand as the shadow procurement buyers don’t use a formal process in purchasing goods and services for the indirect spend. indirect purchases are often made off contract.
Therefore spend data is not effectively leveraged or analysed, or spend data is typically incomplete and not coded by the commodity or category.
Instead, spend data is linked to accounting or expense codes, and purchase orders are either not created or if they are created they can be vague or created “after the fact.”
Procurement have not leveraged digital disruption putting themselves in front of employees like their “shadow suppliers” have done
If your employees rely on digital and mobility solutions to buy, then you have to have a procurement solution that is mobile-centric and digitally-enabled
Automation of a quicker quoting and approval process is just one key factor
The Bottom Line For The CPO
Partner with stakeholders to better understand their needs, supplier relationships and processes. Show them that you’re not just trying to find a lower price at the expense of their quality requirements, supplier relationships or the time they have available to move
Embed procurement staff into their project teams to bridge the misalignment gaps
Adopt an “agile procurement” approach to shorten the time it takes to complete the procurement cycle. An RFP is not always required and there are many opportunities to leverage flexible and agile thinking
Invest in big data analytics to understand the company’s indirect spend amount, categories and how many suppliers are currently being used in each category. Leverage consultants spend analysis tools or request data from suppliers to achieve better visibility into your spend data
Implement an eSourcing tool to better manage indirect categories supported by automated processes
The recent cases of tragic deaths caused by food allergies has opened afresh the debate on fully transparent supply chains.
Many of you will have seen or read news reports in the past couple of weeks regarding the tragic deaths of two women due to severe allergic reactions to eating pre-prepared food. In both cases, the food in question was purchased from the same retailer, though the resulting actions from the cases have been markedly different.
The cases have highlighted industry-wide issues regarding food packaging and labelling relating to allergens, as well as reigniting the debate on where the responsibility lies for food content and allergen checks within the supply chain.
Inadequate Labelling and Mis-sold Products
The first incident occurred after a woman ate a pre-prepared baguette that had sesame baked into the product, but had not been listed on the product’s ingredient list on its packaging.
A recent inquest found that the retailer had “inadequately labelled” its products, failing to highlight the presence of sesame in the food. While the organisation agreed with the coroner’s verdict, it has thrown a spotlight on industry packaging requirements, particularly when it comes to listing potential allergens.
The second death was as a result of a severe allergic reaction to the presence of dairy protein in a pre-packaged sandwich. However, unlike in the first case, the retailer has pointed the finger of blame squarely at one of its second-tier suppliers, claiming it was mis-sold a guaranteed dairy-free yoghurt.
The supplier in question, with whom the retailer has since ended its relationship, has rejected the claim that its product was to blame. They had their own supply chain issue in February 2018 when they were forced to recall some of its products due to undeclared milk, resulting in it ending a relationship with a third-party supplier. The supplier has denied that the recalled product is the same product as caused the allergic reaction, though the retailer and two independent authorities have conducted tests showing that the yoghurt in question had levels of contamination.
Where the fault lies for the contamination will be established in due course. And though this ultimately pales in comparison to the tragic loss of life, it does raise a couple of serious questions: Where does responsibility lie for ensuring product quality in the supply chain? And what can organisations AND suppliers do to ensure full supply chain transparency?
Introducing Blockchain to the Food Industry
The debate on the first question will continue to rumble on. In reality, the responsibility lies with every party, irrespective of which tier they are in the supply chain. That said, the buck ultimately stops with the end user, retailer or seller to ensure products are fully labelled and they are satisfied they are selling a quality (and safe) product.
The answer to the second question may be closer than you think, however. Blockchain has been discussed at length on Procurious and its applications in the supply chain are well documented.
Plus it helps that the world’s largest retailer, Walmart, has just unveiled its new food industry blockchain ambitions in China. The retailer plans to use the existing, proven, technology to ‘overlay’ the supply chains in the notoriously complex industry.
And with major producers such as Dole, Nestle and Unilever on board, as well as IBM as a technology development partner, this does have the signs of being the first step on a (long) road to success.
Success that could usher in new processes for how food information is obtained, stored and shared, allowing all parties to track the provenance of food from farm to table. This will give all levels of the supply chain the transparency required to know products are both safe and of the highest quality.
With what has been in the new recently, with impacts that none of us can predict and that potentially extend further than any of us know, this may also represent the first step to ensuring the similar tragedies don’t happen again.
Read more on Walmart’s food industry blockchain ambitions here.
Learn how to persuade your colleagues and suppliers with 6 tips from 20th-century propaganda masters. Guest post from Invaluable.com.
Since their introduction in 1984, Dr. Robert Cialdini’s six principles of persuasion have become the framework for understanding the science of influence. Each principle is distinct and outlines different methods for effective persuasion.
Mastering the art of persuasion has become a major “soft skill” in the modern corporate world. The ability to influence others is key to developing strong relationships with suppliers, employees and end-users. Persuasion can help to convince others that we are credible, trustworthy leaders worth following and allows us to manipulate the psychological processes of others to our benefit to achieve better results.
In the procurement profession specifically, strong persuasion skills can help to convince your organisation to be more strategic in managing money and can also be a key factor in your fight to minimise maverick spend.
Learning from the propaganda masters
Before the rise of the social media influencer, advertising and propaganda posters were some of the most powerful persuasion tools available. Propaganda posters have been used for decades to inspire, educate, and galvanize the public. Whether you are selling a product, a war, or an idea, advertising can be a powerful tool to inform and persuade your audience. Propaganda posters from the 19th and 20th centuries addressed topics ranging from patriotism to healthcare to feminism.
This article, originally from Invaluable, takes Dr. Cialdini’s six principles of persuasion and applies them to famous propaganda posters used throughout history to wield influence and power over their audiences. With their striking imagery and bold messages, these posters are superb examples of each principle and perfectly illustrate the mechanics behind persuasion.
The first principle, reciprocity, is based on the idea that people often feel obliged to match or repay the behaviors and gifts they receive from others. When using the principle of reciprocity for persuasion, look for opportunities to be the first to give, and make your token unexpected and personal whenever possible. This tactic facilitates a relationship in which the recipient feels appreciative of your contributions and is likely to be more open to the message you share or the favor you ask for.
The propaganda poster “Remember Your First Thrill of American Liberty” is an example of reciprocity in action. This poster was created by the Food and Drug Administration in 1917 to encourage immigrants to the United States to invest in the war effort by purchasing Liberty Bonds, which were a crucial source of funding for the war effort.
By highlighting the benefits and opportunities that the United States had given to immigrants, the poster called upon its audience to invest in the country’s war effort in return. The poster also strategically included the Statue of Liberty as a metaphor for the opportunities available in the United States and to remind immigrants of the emotional experience of arriving in the U.S. for the first time. The artist’s powerful illustrations and the poster’s authoritative call-to-action prompted Americans to recall their debt to their country, which ultimately proved persuasive in raising money for the war effort. This poster remains a powerful example of the way reciprocity persuades us to act.
The second principle of persuasion, scarcity, refers to the idea that when people have less of something, they want it more. Scarcity speaks to our human nature to place greater value on things that are less readily available. To use this principle, incite people to act, agree, or buy your product by demonstrating how they can benefit from it, what’s unique about your offering, and what they could potentially lose out on.
In the poster “Doctors are Scarce, Learn First Aid and Home Nursing,” the artist used the scarcity principle to promote basic at-home care. By making it clear that good medical care would be hard to come by, the poster instilled fear and communicated the importance of individuals learning to manage their own minor health concerns. The poster was created to communicate people’s need to learn to handle their own injuries and illnesses since many doctors were oversees fighting in the war effort.
This poster is historically significant because it is one of the many examples of ways Americans on the home front were forced to ration supplies and services to aid in the wartime effort. Its message drove Americans to act and remains a powerful reminder of the scarcity principle and its ability to influence.
The third principle of persuasion is authority. This principle says audiences are much more likely to listen to messages from sources they respect or view as experts. Whether you are explaining your point of view or selling a product or service, showcasing your credentials will help your chances of success. No matter what your message is, it will be better received if it is packaged in a way that makes it seem authoritative.
When using authority, the source doesn’t always need to be yourself. When someone else points to your credentials the message can be just as powerful or even more effective. In the propaganda poster “Christ Guerilla,” Jesus was portrayed as a guerilla fighter. The poster was created by the Organisation of Solidarity with the People of Asia, Africa, and Latin America based on a quote from the Colombian priest Camilo Torres who said, “If Jesus were alive today, he would be a guerrillero.”
The poster called on the authority behind the Christian religion to convince audiences that being a guerilla fighter was a noble cause. This piece of propaganda was created in Cuba during the 1970s as part of a political movement to fight imperialism and defend human rights. Its message was clear: guerilla fighting was noble, necessary, and moral. Because the poster called upon the authority of Jesus to deliver its message, its theme was especially resonant for its audience.
The consistency principle refers to the idea that people like to remain resolute with the things they have said or done in the past. If someone already agrees with some of your message, or if you are able to get your audience to buy into your point of view in a small way, you’re much more likely to convince them to take further action.
The “We Can Do It!” poster used the consistency principle to encourage women who were already working in factories to work harder. While today this poster is considered one of the most iconic U.S. propaganda posters of all time, it was not widely circulated during World War II when it first appeared. The poster was made in 1943 by J. Howard Miller for Westinghouse Electric, and was part of a broader effort to encourage both male and female workers to work harder due to the high demand for manufacturing generated by the war effort.
The poster resonated with women in its original context in the 1940s and continues to serve as an icon of feminism today. When it was first created, the poster used the consistency principle to remind women of the importance of committing to their factory jobs while encouraging them to work harder and stay motivated. The likeness of Rosie the Riveter still resonates, and the poster has become a rallying cry for recognition of equality.
It’s commonly accepted that people are more likely to agree with the opinions of someone they like. The fifth principle of persuasion, liking, is based on this idea. This principle notes that people agree with those who are similar to them, those who pay them compliments, and those who cooperate with them. If you know your audience already likes you, you have a leg up for persuasion, but incorporating these three factors into your communication efforts can go a long way towards making your audience receptive to your message. Before making your case, consider spending a few moments with your audience to build rapport and likeability.
The poster “Women of Britain Say ‘Go’” incorporated the liking tactic to encourage the men of Britain to buy into the government’s request to join the war effort. During World War I, posters were one of the most important mediums for conveying a message. Women were used in these posters to spread ideas of morality, innocence, and justice in the face of danger.
While this poster was intended to remind the women of Britain to encourage their men to enlist, it also clearly communicated to British men that they’d be spurned by their loved ones if they refused the call to serve. Using the opinions of their families as advocates proved to be an effective persuasion tactic in getting men to enlist.
The sixth principle, consensus, is the idea that people are likely to agree with something if it is in line with what the broader group believes. To get others to believe in your message or your product, point to what those similar to your audience believe and do. When people are unsure of how to act, they look to the behaviors of others they identify with to determine their own beliefs. By highlighting what your audience’s larger social group thinks, you are more likely to get their buy-in.
The title of the poster roughly translates to “Let’s Fulfill the Plan of Great Works,” and shows clear parallels to the consensus principle. The tiny hands fill up a larger hand to communicate to the viewer that all of Russia is working together to reach a common goal. The poster was created in 1930 by Gustav Klutsis, a popular poster artist during this time period who was a popular designer for the Soviet government. This piece was created in the Constructivist style, which originated in Russia in 1919.
Klutsis was associated with the Communist party and created propaganda art for the organization, especially when the party was under the control of Stalin. The hand in this poster is Klutsis’ own hand, but it was used in the poster to represent the workers who were crucial to achieving the Communist party’s goals. The artist incorporated the faces of the workers directly into the poster’s design so they appeared not as individuals, but as a collective mass united around the same goal.
They say a picture tells a thousand words. How about a procurement meme?
Okay, millennials. Strap yourselves in, because I’m going to attempt to meme. Is meme even a verb? Perhaps not, but that isn’t going to stop me.
For older readers who don’t really know (or care) what memes are, don’t worry – I’ve got you covered. Whether it’s Bad Luck Brian, Kermit Sipping Tea, or King Leonidas screaming “SPARTA”, I’ll attempt to add a bit of context around the meme before applying a Procurement gripe to each.
1. Boromir Demurs
Rivendell; Middle Earth. The mood is tense. Gandalf has brought together a motley crew of humans, elves, dwarves and hobbits to discuss how best to destroy the One Ring, which has to that point proven impervious to both magical and physical force. A solution is put forward – take the ring to the enemy realm of Mordor and throw it into the volcanic fires of Mount Doom. At this point, the human warrior Boromir makes his most famous speech of the film, beginning with the words “One does not simply walk into Mordor…”
Since The Fellowship of the Ring, Boromir (Sean Bean) has become a meme, trotted out as a retort whenever someone suggests something that’s impractical, unrealistic, or simply a bad idea.
Here’s my procurement take:
Amirite? (Am I right?) This is Procurement 101 stuff – a company that selects its suppliers based solely on the cheapest quote will inevitably run into risk and quality issues. And besides, if that’s the strategy, then you might as well set up an e-auction system that automatically selects the cheapest bidder, then dispense with the procurement function altogether. Which brings us to…
2. Bad Luck Brian
Poor Brian. This high-schooler in his plaid vest and braces never gets a break. The meme generally follows the formula “[Brian does something positive … something terrible happens”]. For example:
“Spends all night studying … sleeps through exam”
“Only Facebook friend is mum …. cyberbullied”
“Wins a free cruise … on the Titanic”
From a procurement viewpoint:
Procurement professionals LOVE robotic process automation. Think of all those humans doing repetitive tasks at your organisation that could just as well be done by a robot. It’s a cost-saving no-brainer, right? Bring in the bots! Great idea – until it happens to you.
3. American Chopper Argument
Stills of row between father and son from the reality show American Chopper have recently become internet hits. The meme format lends itself well to any internet argument – whether it’s a discussion about the best pizza toppings, or a protracted “debate” in an academic journal.
I could do this all day … here’s another debate from the Discussion section, this time on Decentralised vs Centre-Led Procurement:
5. Distracted Boyfriend
This has to be my favourite meme of all due to its simplicity. A man walking down the street turns to leer after a woman walking past while his girlfriend stares at him with an appalled look on her face.
In procurement land:
We’re about more than cost savings!! Really!
I’ve heard this sad story again and again. Procurement professionals are eager to show their organisations that they’re more than a one-trick pony. We talk about how we can improve operational efficiency, bring in CSR & social procurement initiatives such as fighting modern slavery, and even generate top-line growth, but it’s incredibly disheartening when the boss (usually a CFO) only cares about one thing… cost savings.
6. Leonidas Goes Nuts
The film 300, a retelling of the Battle of Thermopylae in the Persian Wars, contains a gem of a scene where the Spartan King Leonidas loses his patience after being threatened and insulted by a Persian envoy. The envoy, suddenly in fear of his life, says “This is madness” before Leonidas responds with: “This is SPARTA” – and kicks him down a well. It’s an intense moment, as the Spartans know that the murder of the envoy makes war inevitable.
I’m really not advocating the murder of suppliers, but there are moments when you do have to remind them of the terms of a contract.
7. Kermit The Frog looks smug
This meme is particularly useful if you want to be facetious. Kermit the frog, calmly sipping a glass of Lipton tea, has lent himself to many a captioned meme ending with the phrase “… but that’s none of my business”.
As procurement professionals continue to wage their endless struggle against maverick spend, we inevitably have a lot of “I told you so” moments when an unapproved supplier turns out to be a disaster. Along comes Kermit…
There are few thing more frustrating in life than a workplace timewaster. And the worst thing? They come in all different shapes and sizes, which makes them harder to spot!
Colleague: “Hey there buddy, did you have a good weekend?”
Me: “Sure did! But I’ll have to tell you about it later because I’ve got such a busy …”
Colleague: [Sits on the desk] “Great, great… let me tell you about my weekend. Let’s see, now. It all started to kick off on Friday, just after our last conversation…”
Sound familiar? We’ve all encountered chronic timewasters at work, which is why I’ve created this quick and easy video guide on how to shut them down so you can Get Sh#t Done.
Let’s start by working out what type of timewaster you’re dealing with.
1. The Chatter
Some of us like to keep our work life and social life separate. For others, their work life is their social life. Of course there should be a fun, chatty environment at work, but again, there’s always one person who doesn’t understand the limits. So, next time you find yourself making sympathetic noises while your colleague is telling you about their various cats’ medical histories, consider the fact that it will be your neck on the line when a deadline is missed.
How to shut down a chatter: Put a cap on their time – tell them before they begin that you’ve literally only got two minutes to spare. If you really want to drive home the point, get your phone out and set a countdown timer and place it on the table between you.
I’ve worked in the past for line managers who are guilty of this, although you’ll often come across colleagues working at the same level who think it’s okay to handball mundane tasks your way. Specifically, my beef is with people who basically treat you like a search engine. For example:
“Mate, would you mind telling me the time difference between here and Beijing?”
“How much is that converted into Euros?”
“How long will it take me to drive to head office?”
Here’s why it’s frustrating – firstly, they’re really undervaluing your skill set. You were hired for your education, your experience and your intelligence, not your ability to type words into a box. Secondly, they’re just being lazy! I’ve rolled my eyes in the past when I’ve received an emailed question (like the above) which would have been answered straight away if my boss had simply typed it into Google instead of sending it to me.
But luckily, there’s a handy tool for just this situation.
How to shut down a Delegator:Six words: Let Me Google That For You. This tool is a brilliant way to answer a question that should have been googled. It generates a short, tongue-in-cheek tutorial about how to use a search engine (starting with “This is the internet”) and finishes with the answer to the original question. Check it out.
3. The sounding-boarder
Extrovert: “Man, I LOVE open-plan offices! They’re so great for bouncing ideas off people!”
Me: “Yes. Every single idea you’ve ever had.”
Okay, it’s true. Open plan offices, and even collaborative online workspaces like Slack, are ideal for airing and sharing ideas. But some people take the concept of the “sounding board” too far. This might involve a colleague regularly reading aloud emails that they’ve crafted before hitting send, or running stuff past you that really doesn’t require your input or opinion.
How to shut down a Sounding-Boarder:
Invest in a pair of noise-cancelling headphones and pretend you’re on an important call whenever your colleague gets that “sounding-board” look in their eye.
Give them a very short list of high-level areas where you feel you can add value.
Give them a taste of their own medicine by sitting them down and reading aloud the longest, dullest report you can find.
4. The Meeter
Me: “Oh, hey, just a reminder that we’ve got that client meeting tomorrow. Everything is under control, and I’ve sent you all the information you’ll need.”
Colleague: “Let’s have a meeting about that.”
Me: “Why? WHY?”
How much time and resources will corporates keep pouring into unnecessary meetings before they see the light? Unnecessary meetings are so despised that they’ve become a meme. They’re a regular feature in Dilbert, and you can even buy a coffee mug that says “I survived another meeting that should have been an email”.
How to shut Meeters down: Insist that the person gives you some good reasons for the meeting. This includes a stated purpose, a start and end time, and a valid reason for each person to be there.
Do you know any other types of timewasters in the office? Leave a comment below!
Nothing says Procurement quite like a classic trifle; it’s intricate, it’s complicated, but if you get it right… everyone wants a piece of it!
As the holidays descend upon us, it’s time to start winding down the gears to relax and – inevitably – reflect on the year that was!
Time with family and friends for me is synonymous with food! Because I almost always spend this time of year in the southern hemisphere, it’s a summer menu. It’s more about prawns and pavlova than pork and pancetta (although the latter does make it onto table anyway!) But, of course, that other p … the “p” we all love – procurement – is never far from mind and always on the menu for discussion!
During the year I have been fortunate to speak to procurement and supply chain audiences around the world about the trends we are seeing on Procurious and the impending impact of Industry 4.0 on our profession. In order to provide a framework for thinking through all the challenges and opportunities, I have been sharing a rather quirky analogy by comparing the well-loved English pudding – the trifle – to procurement and supply chain today. Putting up a giant image of a pudding on the big screen at a conference is also a great way to get your audience’s attention!
For the uninitiated, constructing an English trifle involves carefully layering sponge, jelly, custard, fruit, cream, and often garnishing with a heavy sprinkling of nuts.
Yet each layer remains distinct, and that’s how I think of procurement today – a series of self-supporting layers that feed into and out of each other. To manage our roles, we need to understand the strengths and weaknesses or the “setting points”, of those layers if we’re to stay ahead.
Let’s think through some of those layers.
Navigating the Nuts
Let’s start with the top layer of nuts. A generous sprinkling of the unexpected! This is how I think about the Black Swan events that seem to occur with alarming regularity these days. We need to be thinking about these unthinkables – hurricanes like Harvey that de-commission whole cities, man-made catastrophes like the Tianjin port disaster, not to mention recent terrorist attacks. If we can’t predict them, we can at least prepare for the unexpected, take pre-emptive action against disasters that could destroy our supply chains and analyse areas of high-risk.
Brexit is just one example of how our supply chain forward planning can become somewhat suspended by macroeconomic and geopolitical changes. In Europe, the UK’s decision to activate Brexit is having clear ramifications including a rise in nationalism that’s reflected across Europe. Currency fluctuation and workforce migration also impact procurement and supply chain. The costs to import goods within supply chains will increase; there could be a loss in freedom of movement both in goods and services for UK and EU businesses, and procurement talent could also be considerably affected if the talent pool is reduced.
The Fruits of Progress
We all have front row seats at the parade of new and exciting technologies that are driving the 4th industrial revolution. The rise of the Internet of Things, robotics, blockchain and artificial intelligence will create what we are calling Procurement 4.0.
Cognitive procurement & supply chains are the most exciting developments to happen during my 20-year career. These innovations will enthuse a whole new generation of procurement professionals to join our ranks, but we need to be flexible, agile and able to foster a culture of continuous invention to stay on the leading edge and avoid extinction.
The Foundation Layer
Finally there’s the layer in which we hold the power: Procurement.
Procurement is the sponge at the bottom of the trifle. No matter how many unstable layers of fruit and jelly and custard are piled on top of us, we remain intact. We successfully juggle with the events and changes over which our stakeholders and suppliers have only limited control.
Fortunately, social media helps. I don’t know about you, but when my phone is pinging through the night with texts and emails from the other side of the globe, I’m often tempted to turn it off. But I don’t, because for all the downsides of being constantly online, the benefits of being connected are immense.
Three out of four of our respondents to our Gen Next Survey believed that being well-connected online actually improved on-the-job performance. By using resources like Procurious, not only can we maintain the layers of our trifle by staying aware of these constant changes, but we can also gain access to an enormous diversity of ideas and enthuse the next generation of procurement talent.
The Cream of Procurement Talent
To meet the challenge posed by the top layers of the trifle – unthinkable events, geopolitical earthquakes and disruptive technology – attracting the best and brightest to the profession is vital to our success.
To do that, we need to think hard about how we are bringing on Generation Next, and giving them every opportunity so their impact is not just local, but global.
While we’re talking about talent, here’s another “unthinkable” to ponder – our Gen Next survey also discovered that over 70% of our 500+ survey takers intend to leave their organisation within the next five years. How can we respond to this? The worst thing to do is to keep up the pretense that every member of your team will be sitting at the same desk in ten years’ time. Instead, it’s time to throw away the retention plan and accept the reality that today’s workforce is increasingly mobile.
But this doesn’t mean giving up on developing your team. If you’re known as a supportive manager who gives others the opportunity to go on to a stellar career, you’ll become a talent magnet in the profession. Just image the level of superstar talent that you’ll attract if you develop a reputation as someone who produces future CPOs!
Cutting Through The Complexity
Change management is such an integral part of every senior procurement professionals’ role, and often involves driving change within your organisation and amongst suppliers on a global scale.
The good news is that we’re exactly the right people for the job. Procurement’s position as the conduit of supplier intelligence, our ever-growing level of influence in our organisations, and our keenly-honed negotiation and communication skills make us natural change-management gurus.
Remember that trifle?
The challenge for today’s procurement leaders to deftly cut through all those quivering layers of economic, social, political and technological complexity to serve up a slice of procurement solutions in such a way that your audience will devour your change agenda with gusto!